4 Thermo 1 - Thermodynamics. Study of temperature, heat and...

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Thermodynamics. Study of temperature, heat and related macroscopic properties of objects and matter. Specifically macroscopic properties: temperature, pressure, heat, internal energyE Thermodynamic equilibrium: two systems are in thermodynamic equilibrium with each other, when they are in thermal contact and no change in any macroscopic property occurs with time. “Any macroscopic property” – length, volume, pressure, electrical conductivity, color. Why do we stress that we talk about MACROSCOPIC properties? What do we mean by thermal contact?
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Temperature Is it so easy to distinguish between cold and hot? TemperatureE What is it?
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Two systems have the same temperature if they are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Zeroth law of thermodynamics: if two systems A and C each are in thermodynamic equilibrium with system B, then A and C are in thermodynamic equilibrium with each other. Sounds trivial, but gives a rationale for measuring temperature. Temperature is the parameter that two systems in thermodynamic equilibrium have in common.
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Zeroth law of thermodynamics: if two systems A and C each are in thermodynamic equilibrium with system B, then A and C are in thermodynamic equilibrium with each other. B A C
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ThermometersE
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Liquid thermometers Based on thermal expansion of liquids. The liquids are held in little vessels at the bottom. At higher temperatures they expand and climb toward the top of narrow capillaries.
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How to calibrate a liquid thermometer? You need some reference temperatures . You may want to stick the thermometer into boiling water and melting ice, hoping that those set two well-defined temperatures. You will find the liquid expanded
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4 Thermo 1 - Thermodynamics. Study of temperature, heat and...

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