end_of_universe

# end_of_universe - Announcements Homework#10 is due today...

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Announcements • Homework #10 is due today • Review for test #4 on Friday Dec. 9 2:00 – 3:00pm • Test #4 on Tuesday, Dec 13 7:30 – 8:45am

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The End of the Universe How will the Universe end? Is this the only Universe? What, if anything, will exist after the Universe ends?
Some say the world will end in fire, Some say in ice. From what I’ve tasted of desire I hold with those who favor fire. But if I had to perish twice, I think I know enough of hate To know that for destruction ice is also great And would suffice. Robert Frost

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Universe started out very hot (Big Bang), then expanded: How it ends depends on the geometry of the Universe:
The Geometry of Curved Space Possibilities: 1) Space curves back on itself (like a sphere). "Positive" curvature. Sum of the Angles > 180

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2) More like a saddle than a sphere, with curvature in the opposite sense in different dimensions: "negative" curvature. 3) A more familiar flat geometry. Sum of the Angles < 180 Sum of the Angles = 180
We saw that a black hole affects the geometry of space around it. Likewise, the geometry of the universe depends on the total mass and energy of the universe (including dark energy). There is a critical amount, which if exceeded, implies positive curvature, and if not met, implies negative curvature. If right at the critical amount, get flat universe. Latest measurements imply flat universe.

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The Geometry of the Universe determines its fate
Case 1: high density Universe, spacetime is positively curved Result is “Big Crunch” Fire

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Cases 2 or 3: open Universe (flat or negatively curved) Current measurements favor an open Universe Result is infinite expansion Ice
1) The Primordial Era 2) The Stelliferous Era 3) The Degenerate Era 4) The Black Hole Era 5) The Dark Era The Five Ages of the Universe

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1. The Primordial Era: 10 -50 - 10 5 y Something triggers the Creation of the Universe at t=0
Inflation A problem with microwave background:

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end_of_universe - Announcements Homework#10 is due today...

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