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4.+Kinetoplastids+-+South+American+Trypanosomes

4.+Kinetoplastids+-+South+American+Trypanosomes -...

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The Kinetoplastids Leishmania spp. Trypanosoma spp. *
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Trypanosoma cruzi   American Trypanosomiasis Chagas Disease (Chagas  1909) Carlos Chagas observed infectious stages of  T. cruzi & isolated it from many species of  mammals. He named it after his teacher &  friend Oswaldo Cruz  Both Chagas & Cruzi are on Brazilian  money Cruz Chagas
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Terms from the documentary-Chagas Bolivia : country in central South America; bordered  by Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile & Peru. Vinchuca  = triatomine or “kissing bugs” = T. cruzi vector Vector : insect/other living carrier that transmits infectious agent\ Benznidazole & nifurtamox : drugs given to treat T. cruzi infection, these are  not always effective or without side effects. Protease inhibitor : proteases are enzymes  that break down proteins; an inhibitor  would prevent this function, which is essential.
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Kill or Cure: Chagas  Season 2 Episode 1 16 million people in South America carry the  parasite that causes Chagas Disease - a parasite that  will kill a quarter of them in middle age. The  parasite is transmitted by the so-called kissing bug -  in Bolivia they call it Vinchuca - which bites at  night, sucking blood while its victims sleep. We  travel from the mountain villages of Bolivia to the  laboratories of San Francisco in search of a safe,  effective cure. http://www.rockhopper.tv/programmes/27/
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Kinetoplastid Morphological Forms:  American trypanosome =  Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic  trypomastigote : shed by bug in feces,  infects mammal. some amastigotes in mammal become  trypomastigotes   infectious for kissing bugs.  Epimastigote: replicative form in insect amastigote  (mammal, intracellular, no flagellum)  epimastigote amastigote insect mammal metacyclic trypomastigote trypomastigote mammal in macrophages
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•found through Central & South America •occasionally southwestern portion of US •intracellular parasite for majority of its life cycle •infects all mammal species native to South & Central America  •vector borne: kissing bugs are only insect vectors •chronic infection   life-threatening diseases of hollow organs   •world's leading cause of cardiomyopathy   Hollow organ : visceral organ that is a hollow tube or pouch (stomach or intestine) or that  includes a cavity (heart or bladder).
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