15.+Drug+action+++public+health

15.+Drug+action+++public+health - Ecology of Parasitic...

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Unformatted text preview: Ecology of Parasitic Disease Anti-Parasitic Drugs how are parasitic diseases maintained in the environment? why are 2-3 billion people harboring so many different parasite species? Ecology of Parasitic Disease overpopulation & crowding enhance chances for transmission altered ecosystems parasites spread by fecal-oral contamination of environment maintain endemic foci for infections use of night soil as fertilizer contaminated water & food fragmentation of ecosystems creation of ecotones diversity of life is higher between zones variety of infectious agents transmitted in these regions (rabies, Leishmania , schistosomiasis & malaria) encroachment on natural ecosystems throughout world urbanization & construction of dams deforestation & mining agriculture & aquaculture political instability, civil unrest & war parasite transmission depends upon complex elements Why Parasites Continue to be Successful pesticide resistance in insect vectors drug resistance in important parasites human activities formation of new ecotones Ecotone : a transitional zone between two adjacent ecological communities containing the characteristic species of each & exhibiting competition between these shared organisms. Human behaviors create ecotones : urbanization dams deforestation agriculture & aquaculture mining human population is ~6.8 billion majority live in tropical & subtropical regions large populations live next to rivers, lakes & wetlands malaria, filariasis, onchocerciasis & schistosomiasis reservoirs most urbanization is unplanned sprawling & slum like vector-borne disease thrives in these communities South & Central America, India, middle East & Africa leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, filariasis & malaria Urbanization Benefits of dams hydroelectric power water for irrigation & drinking flood control Dams slow water breeding grounds for vectors and hosts of parasitic disease. maintaining a clean water supply requires vigilance & money things that only coexist in countries with stable governments Dams ~800,000 dams impede progress of rivers, many within tropics ~12 million children in the world under 5 die each year >2 million die from diarrheal diseases spread by contaminated water in tropical zones dams create lentic environments lentic : still water ( lakes, ponds, swamps rather than rivers ) where snails, black flies & mosquitoes breed increased incidence of vector borne diseases Dams Aswan High Dam in Egypt altered ecological setting increased risks for people living along Nile River before dam: Schistosoma mansoni...
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2011 for the course BIOSCI m143 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at UC Irvine.

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15.+Drug+action+++public+health - Ecology of Parasitic...

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