Lecture-7-kscN152REVISED

Lecture-7-kscN152REVISED - Developmental Neurobiology N152...

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1 Karina S. Cramer [email protected] 10/13/11 Developmental Neurobiology N152 Next week: Tuesday, October 18, class will discuss Nieto paper. The paper and a reading guide are posted on line. My office hours next week: TUESDAY October 18 1:30 pm – 2:30 pm 2205 McGaugh Hall Thursday, October 20: Ana will lead review session for midterm.
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2 Neural Fate Specification: Summary When is fate determined? Transplantation studies: Neural crest: adrenergic or cholinergic? Grafts can adapt to fate appropriate for the new location, but migrating progenitors lose potential as they encounter signals in environment. Cell fate specification in the neural crest Neural crest cells become a variety of cell types. Transplant experiments using chick/quail chimeras Each region of the crest contains some specified progenitors Becoming a particular fate is a multistep process
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3 • Labeled neural crest progenitors give rise to numerous cell types. • Individual labeled cells show that the fate depends on the migratory route. Influence of local environments Treatment with exogenous factors As neural crest cells migrate, they encounter different factors along the way that influence their fate. When neural crest cells grown in vitro are exposed to different factors, different fates are obtained.
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4 Glia vs. Neurons in the PNS PNS glia arise from the neural crest and express Sox10 Decision to express Sox10 occurs late, after the progenitor cells decide whether they are going to be sensory or autonomic Neuregulin-1 (a secreted protein) induces neural crest cells to adopt glial fates Cells start expressing the receptor as they migrate so they are Nrg-1 sensitive Neural Fate Specification: Summary When is fate determined? Transplantation studies: Heterochronic grafts show decrease in potential in the ventricular zone of the developing cerebral cortex.
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5 • Neurons in cortical layers might provide feedback to progenitors in the ventricular zone. • At E30, layer 6 neurons are made (red), but progenitors can make all layers. Desai and McConnell, 2000 Signals that limit cortical cell fate • Neurons in cortical layers might provide feedback to progenitors in the ventricular zone. • At E30, layer 6 neurons are made (red), but progenitors can make all layers. • At E33, progenitors are signaled to begin making layer 5. • By E36, progenitors make layer 4 and have lost the potential to make layer 6 neurons but retain the ability to generate layers 5, 4, and 2/3. At this age layer 6 neurons have reached the cortical plate and extend axons along the ventricular surface. • At P2, progenitors are committed to production of upper layers. Neural Fate Specification: Summary When is fate determined? Coculture studies: Fates are also gradually restricted as retinal development proceeds.
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6 Neural Fate Specification: Summary Cellular interactions guide fate specification in the drosophila eye Mutations have led to identification of complex signaling pathway.
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