Lecture+10 - Behavioral Development Susana Cohen-Cory Ph.D...

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11/28/2011 1 Behavioral Development November 29, 2011 Susana Cohen-Cory, Ph.D. Neurobiology and Behavior Office: 1230 McGaugh Hall X 48188 e-mail: [email protected] The human cerebral cortex is made up of 20 billion neurons, each of which makes an average of 7,000 synaptic contacts. Each neuron contains 46 chromosomes, made up of 3 billion nucleotides, and up to 25,000 individual genes are contained in one set of 23 chromosomes. This adds to the complexity of the human brain. High potential for complex genetic regulation of the human brain. Disorders involving the brain are among the most difficult to treat. Only with a better understanding of the development of the nervous system will we be able to improve the quality of life of those who suffer from developmental disorders.
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11/28/2011 2 A. The cross-hatched region of the lumbar spinal cord of this premotile chicken embryo is shown in cross section in (B), which shows the operation done in ovo , which removes the dorsal spinal cord and neural crest containing all the sensory neurons in this region. C. Activity monitor of average normal leg movements (line) and leg movements generated by legs without any sensory input in operated animals (circles). (Adapted from Hamburger et al., 1966) A. Electromyographic recordings from the sartorius muscle of a chick embryo in ovo. B. A piece of the embryo kept in a culture dish. Very similar spontaneous movements begin to occur in these two situations, although the bursts of activity in the in vitro preparation are shorter and less frequent.
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11/28/2011 3 Recordings are made from single neurons in the superior colliculus (left) or association cortex (right) that respond to more than one sensory modality. The auditory (green), somatosensory (red), and visual (blue) receptive fields are shown for neurons from cats of increasing age. Remember, as connections prune back and refine, receptive field properties (responses) of single neurons become more refined. Visual scene as it would Visual scene as it would appear to an adult and to a neonate The majority of infants will not crawl The majority of infants will not crawl onto the seemingly unsupported surface in this visual cliff test, even when their mothers encourage them from the other side. These results suggest that infants perceive depth by 6 months of age.
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11/28/2011 4 Neurodevelopmental Disorders Causes Early sensory deprivation or altered sensory experience Genetic disorders Immune dysfunction Infectious diseases Traumatic brain injury Nutrition Toxic and environmental factors Or a combination of two or more of the above From molecules to cognition During the last 10 years there has been an advancement in the understanding of a number of developmental
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