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globin_gene_struct_++08 - Globin and gene structure J.L...

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Globin and gene structure 11/13/08 J.L. Marsh 137B - 1 - GLOBIN GENES AND GENE STRUCTURE Objectives: Gene structure, Consensus & conserved sequences (the beta globin gene) (Efstradiatis paper 1 1.Anatomy of a gene 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ! AUG TAA TAG TGA [GT AG] cap(ppp7CH3Gp) AATAAA AAAAAAn(1-200) AAAAn TATA Termination? LETS COMPARE SEQUENCE OF cDNA (mRNA) AND GENOMIC DNA -mRNA 1] PROTEIN CODING REGION recognized as a single LONG OPEN READING FRAME = PRIMARY MEANS OF RECOGNIZING CODING SEQUENCE -Met = start translation codon. -TAG, TGA or TAA = stop translation codon - Code is same a bacteria 2] UNTRANSLATED PARTS AT 5' AND 3' ENDs - 5' Untranslated = translation initiation - 3' Untranslated = ? (mRNA localization) They are part of the exons 3] 3 MODIFICATIONS occur to the primary RNA transcript. 1] RNA IS MODIFIED AT 5' END = CAPPED Ribosomes scan Cap = m7G(5')ppp(5')N---- Thought to be necessary for translation Occurs shortly after initiation 2 It is catalyzed by guanylyl and methyl transferases which are nuclear enzymes Most animal viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm contain similar activities and cap their mRNAs Cap binding proteins facilitate initiation complex formation 1 Eftstratiadis et al Cell 21:653-663 (1980) The structure and evolution of the Human B-globin family 2 Shatkin Cell 40:223-224 (1985) mRNA cap binding proteins: Essential factors for initiating translation
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Globin and gene structure 11/13/08 J.L. Marsh 137B - 2 - [Shatkin diagram] 2] RNA IS MODIFIED @ 3' END - POLY A Poly A is added by terminal transferase This requires cleavage of mRNA and addition of AAAn Occurs 14bp 3' of AATAAA [Efstrad fig 9]
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