Gas Laws Summary Sheet: A Gas is a fluid,and expands to fit the available space. Pressure must be applied to confine it (it will in turn exert pressure on the container walls), more pressure must be applied to compact its volume. All gases mix freely (unless they react). Pressure is measured directly using a barometer, pressure differences are measured using a manometer. Both use mercury columns. The SI unit is the Pascal but the atmosphere and ‘mm of Hg’ are commonly used. 1atm = 760mm Hg = 101.325 kPa = 760 torr Boyles’ Law: P 1 V 1 =P 2 V 2 (n,T const.) Charles’ Law: V 1 = V 2 (n, P const.) T 1 T 2 ALWAYS USE TEMP IN KELVIN. WATCH UNITS! STANDARD TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (STP) Zero degrees C (273.15K) and one atmosphere pressure. Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT Combined Gas Law: P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 (n const.) T 1 T 2 n = number of moles of gas R = Universal Gas Constant: 0.08206 L.atm mol-1 K-1 Avogadro’s Law: V 1 = V 2 (T, P const.) Standard Molar volume: 22.414 L/mol n 1 n 2 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures: P
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