chm notes - Acids with one or more ionizable proton are...

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Acids with one or more ionizable proton are polyprotic acids. In this acid, one proton at a time dissociates from the acid molecule, and each dissocation steps has a different Ka. For every polyprotic acid, the first proton comes off to a much greater extent than the second and where applicable the second does to a much greater extend than the third. It is more difficult for an H+ ion to leave a singley charged anion such as H2PO4 – than to leave a neutral molecule such as H3PO4 and more difficult still for it leave a double charged anion HPO4 2-. A base is any species that accepts a proton; to do so the base must have a lone electron pair. The strength of an acid depends on its ability to donate a proton, which depends in turn on the strength of the bond to the acidic proton. Trends in Acid Strength of nonmetal hydrides: o 1. Across a period nonmetal hydride acid strength increases. Across a period the electronegativity of the nonmetal E determines the trend. As E becomes more electronegative the electron density around H is withdrawn. o
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chm notes - Acids with one or more ionizable proton are...

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