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Lecture _11a - CEG 4012 Lecture#11 SITE EXPLORATION SITE...

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CEG 4012 Lecture #11 SITE EXPLORATION
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SITE EXPLORATION (Your site is probably not homogeneous, elastic, or isotopic) Purpose – gather data for foundation design and construction methods •Identify soil type, especially difficult soils such as soft clay, expansive clay, or muck •Determine layering (“stratification”) and variability •Obtain samples for identification and lab tests to measure soil properties •Determine depth to rock (if present) •Perform insitu field tests for soil properties •Observe site drainage conditions •Observe nearby structures possibly affected by construction effort •Measure depth to water table (effective stresses ...... )
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1) Obtain information about site usage and design of structure (often preliminary). 2) Compile best information about anticipated fou ndation loads (moving target). 3) Consider building code requirements (can be restrictive). 4) Anticipate construction difficulties (excavation, fill requirements, drainage, cofferdams, shoring). Planning an Investigation
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Planning an Investigation – Collect existing information: Geologic survey maps – type and age of soil/rock formation, faults Geodetic survey maps – land form, elevation, topography, site access Specialty maps – seismic potential, frost heave potential, flood zones Aerial Photographs – land form, sinkholes, lineaments, a picture is wor th ..... Soil survey maps – information about surface soils (<10’ depth) City, county, state maps & documents – radon potential, previous soil inv estigations, title history (previous owners - environmental hazards). Adjacent site information – geotechnical reports, permit applications
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– Field trip – visit site, observe current usage, nearby structures/ problems, type of vegetation, nearby cuts, accessibility – Detailed site investigation - develop information for foun dation design Start with a few preliminary strategically located borings/soundings The final number and depth of borings/soundings, and the amount of lab testin g is based on the results obtained – a “work in progress”. Include client in these decisions. Actual site usage may depend on results of the investigation. Some sites just aren’t worth the effort Minimum number of borings: one in center of each structure (building, pier, towe r, etc.) Prefer 4–5 borings for buildings, 2-3 for large bridge piers. All borings/soundings should penetrate to at least depth of 10% stress incre ase (2B). A few may be deeper, especially for large or heavy structures. For dee p foundations penetrate 1B-2B (width of pile/shaft group ) below tips.
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