Phonetics III - Today Phonetics III Vocal anatomy (cont.)...

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1 Phonetics III Sept. 26, 2011 Today Vocal anatomy (cont.) How we study vocal anatomy (cont.) Recap Last class, we… Introduced vocal anatomy The larynx & vocal cords How we study vocal anatomy Observing the vocal folds Transillumination & photoglottography (PPG) both used to study the vibrations of the vocal folds As sensitive as high-speed photography in many cases Transillumination: Light is directed into the neck (from below); photoelectric sensor is placed in the pharynx Photoglottography reverses location of light source & photoelectric sensor (sensor is on the neck) Observing the vocal folds Photoelectric sensor is sensitive to amount of light passing through the glottis Problems: … still requires anesthesia; still not particularly comfortable http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/phonetik/EGG/page13a.htm Observing the vocal folds Electroglottography Used to study laryngeal behavior Measures electrical resistance between two electrodes that are placed on the neck Small amount of current (safe!) passes through electrodes images from: http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/phonetik/EGG/frmst2.htm
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2 Electroglottography Observe different EGG patterns when glottis is open and closed http://aune.lpl.univ-aix.fr/~ghio/pedago-EggUK.htm Increasing impedance Time Electroglottography Good for information about vibration Not influenced by anything going on in the vocal tract Nearer to source of phonation Not so good for information about the surface of the glottis Electroglottography Non-invasive! Not uncomfortable! … but sensitive to individual differences (e.g., position of vocal folds & larynx within the throat, proportions of muscle & fat around the larynx, structure of the thyroid cartilage) … and to experiment-specific variation (e.g., placement of the electrodes) Measuring Articulators Tongue movement: Electropalatography: measures contact Plate (plastic, ceramic) containing electrodes is fitted to the hard palate Like a retainer http://speech.umaryland.edu/epg.html Measuring Articulators Electrodes pick up when tongue hits this plate Can be very useful when trying to figure out what the tongue is doing during speech http://speech.umaryland.edu/ Measuring Articulators What does electropalatography look like? http://speech.umaryland .edu/movies/EPGmsc1. mpg
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3 Ultrasounds Can also use ultrasounds to study movement of articulators (e.g., tongue) http://speech.umaryland.edu/ahats.html Ultrasounds http://speech.umaryland.edu/research.html MRI MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging Subject saying /r/ MRI is not typically ideal for movement, because it takes static pictures But Cine-MRI (and others) provide work-arounds (see http://speech.umaryland.edu/MICSR.html for more information)
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2011 for the course LING 101 taught by Professor Teddemen during the Fall '11 term at University of Alberta.

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Phonetics III - Today Phonetics III Vocal anatomy (cont.)...

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