Semantics 2 - Today Semantics II Semantics(cont Taxonomic...

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1 Semantics II Sept. 12, 2011 Today… Semantics (cont.) Relationships between sentences Last class… … we started talking about relationships between words Perfect synonyms? Types of antonyms: simple, gradable, reverses, converses Taxonomic sisters Taxonomy: hierarchical classification system Words occurring at the same level of a taxonomy are taxonomic sisters . E.g., colour adjectives: red, orange, yellow, green, blue… Taxonomic sisters Some taxonomies are closed – we can’t add new members E.g., the days of the week Some taxonomies are open – new members can be added and the taxonomy extended E.g., newly discovered species can be added to existing biological taxonomies Hyponymy A relation of inclusion: going up the taxonomic hierarchy The more general term is the superordinate or hypernym ( animal ) A hyponym is a term below the hypernym – it is a type of that hypernym includes the meaning of a more general word dog and cat are hyponyms of animal Special case: Adult-young relation cat/kitten, cow/calf, duck/duckling
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2 Hyponymy bird crow hawk duck etc. kestrel sparrowhawk etc. Hypernym Taxonomic sisters Interim practice What is the relation between… dog/puppy hyponomy intelligent/bright synonomy hard/soft antonymy Polysemy Refers to multiple related meanings of a single word a b bright ‘shining’ ‘intelligent’ cover ‘to hide’ ‘a lid’ ‘top sheet of a bed’ … etc. Polysemy How do we know words are related? Examine the historical development of the items Use native speaker intuitions (much of this work is done by lexicographers & is important in the creation of dictionaries) Polysemy Assessing relatedness can be tricky
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Semantics 2 - Today Semantics II Semantics(cont Taxonomic...

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