Semantics 3 - Today Semantics III Entailment revisited...

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Semantics III Sept. 14, 2011 Today… Entailment revisited Types of meaning Words and their relationship to the world Recap! We talked about how words and sentences relate to each other Words relate to each other through: Synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, polysemy & homonymy Sentences relate to each other through: paraphrase, entailment, contradiction Truth value: whether a sentence is true or false Truth conditions: the facts that have to exist in order for a sentence to be true or false Entailment defined by truth: “A sentence p entails a sentence q when the truth of the first ( p ) guarantees the truth of the second ( q ), and the falsity of the second ( q ) guarantees the falsity of the first ( p ).” Saeed (1997: 90) p : I bought a dog today q : I bought an animal today If it is true that I bought a dog today (p) , then it must also be true that I bought an animal today ( q ) If it is not true I bought an animal today ( q ), then it cannot be true that I I bought a dog today (p) . p : I bought a dog today q : I bought an animal today NOTE: if p is false… then we can’t say anything about whether q is true or false. if q is true, then p can be either true or false.
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Using this definition, paraphrases can be said to mutually entail* each other p : The Etruscans built this tomb q : This tomb was built by Etruscans If p is true, then q must be true. If q is false, then p is also false. *But on an exam, use “paraphrase” when you’re talking about this relationship. Some review
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2011 for the course LING 101 taught by Professor Teddemen during the Fall '11 term at University of Alberta.

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Semantics 3 - Today Semantics III Entailment revisited...

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