SLIDES - Pre-Exam 2 Review Phonology Morphology Phoneme How sounds are stored in the mind Phonemes are contrastive sounds because they change the

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Pre-Exam 2 Review Phonology Morphology
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Phoneme How sounds are stored in the mind. Phonemes are contrastive sounds because they change the meaning of the word. Examples [ ɛ ], [t], [g], [ ʤ ] Allophone How sounds are produced. These are predictable variants of a phoneme; occur in complementary distribution or free variation. Examples Consonant palatalization, vowel duration, nasalization
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Minimal Pair Two phonetic forms which differ by one segment that is in the same position in both forms AND which have different meanings. Examples 1) [‘tab ɐ ] and [‘tap ɐ ] Portuguese for “native reservation” and “slap (noun)” 2) [‘gatu] and [‘gadu] Portuguese for “cat” and “cattle” 3) [‘pra ɪ s] and [‘pra ɪ z] “price” and “prize”
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Free Variation When two sounds are free to occur in the exact same position in a word, but it doesn’t result in a difference in the meaning of the word. Examples 1) Floater [fl əʊɾɚ ] or [fl əʊ t ɚ ] 2) Peter [p ɪɾɚ ] or [p ɪ t ɚ ] 3) Pudding [p ʊɾɪ ŋ ] or [p ʊ d ɪ ŋ ]
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Complementary Distribution The relationship between two different elements, where one element is found in a particular environment and the other element is found in the opposite environment. That is, complementary distribution is the mutually exclusive relationship between two phonetically similar segments. It exists when one segment occurs in an environment where the other segment never occurs.
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Complementary Distribution continued. .. A & B overlap B is subset of A A is complement of B
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Complementary Distribution Continued. .. When two phonetically similar sounds are in complimentary distribution, we may conclude that the distinction between them is allophonic. Example In English, we can predict if a vowel will be nasal or oral just by knowing the phonetic context it occurs in.
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Complementary Distribution Continued. .. We state rules that govern the contexts in which each class of allophones occur. We do this by referring to the phonetic properties of the natural classes affected by the rule. Example for vowel nasality in English: vowel nasal / __nasal vowel oral / elsewhere In other words, vowels become nasalized before a nasal sound or vowels remain oral in every other condition.
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Complementary Distribution Continued. .. One more example: [p] aspiration in English: [p] and [p ʰ ] are allophones of the phoneme /p/ because they occur in complementary distribution. [p ʰ ] always occurs syllable initially in a stressed syllable (as in the word p in) , but [p] never does – [p] occurs in all other situations (as in the word s p in).
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Phonotactic Rules Rules that govern how sounds are put together to form possible words in a language. These are language specific. [pjgwk] are all phonemes in English, but this
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2011 for the course LING 101 taught by Professor Teddemen during the Fall '11 term at University of Alberta.

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SLIDES - Pre-Exam 2 Review Phonology Morphology Phoneme How sounds are stored in the mind Phonemes are contrastive sounds because they change the

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