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syntax 4 - Today Syntax IV Grammatical relations(cont Case...

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1 Syntax IV November 25, 2011 Today… Grammatical relations (cont.) Case & Agreement Thematic/semantic roles Annoucements T/F question removed: Words borrowed into a language always maintain their original pronunciation Recap Last class… Grammatical relations: Word Order, Case Case Marking Adding morphology to arguments to indicate their grammatical relation to the predicate Case Marking English pronouns: S V O S V O I saw him He saw me Who did I see? Him . Who did he see? Me . Who saw him ? I did. Who saw me ? He did. Him , I saw. Me , he saw
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2 Case Marking We only mark case on our pronouns in English Historical leftovers No marking on other NPs compare: The dog chased the cat The cat chased the dog Case Marking How does English mark case? Subj Objs 1st sing. I me 1st plur. we us 3rd sing.masc. he him 3rd sing. fem. she her 3rd plur. they them Suppletion Case Marking Japanese Hanako- ga Ken- ni hon- o age-ta Hanako- nom Ken- dat book- acc give-pst ‘Hanako gave Ken a book’ … how do you mark S, IO, O in Japanese? Case Marking with suffixes S IO O “[Hanako] gave [Ken] [the book]” Hanako- ga Ken- ni hon- o age-ta -ga = subject -o = direct object -ni = indirect object Word order AND Case Japanese sentences have free word order among their arguments …but the predicate (verb) is always final in the sentence Agreement (One last way of marking grammatical relations) Recall: where one category is marked to reflect properties of another.
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