syntax 5 - Today Syntax V Thematic/semantic roles (cont.)...

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1 Syntax V November 27, 2011 Today… Thematic/semantic roles (cont.) Dependency Trees Recap Last class… Case marking & Agreement (grammatical relations) Semantic roles Warm-up: What’s the order? (pg. 171) 2. Samoan: Determine the order of V, S, O, IO, X) a) [Sa pa?u:] [le ufi] PAST fall the yam V S b) [Sa sogi] [ele teine] [le ufi] PAST cut the girl the yam V S O c) [E sogi] [ele tama] [le ufi] [i le to?i] PRES cut the boy the yam PREP the axe V S O X ‘the yam fell ‘the girl cut the yam’ ‘the boy is cutting the yam with the axe’ Instruments Participant (usually an item/inanimate object) used by the agent to carry out an interaction; often effects a change of state in the patient a. John cut the bread with a knife b. The key opened the door Beneficiary Beneficiary: Participant who benefits from/is harmed by an event a. Fred left candies for George on his desk b. John made Mary a dinner c. Doug brought a cup of coffee for Paul d. Doug brought Paul a cup of coffee
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2 Beneficiary: Participant who benefits from/is harmed by an event Recipient: participant that receives some transferred object, concrete (a gift) or abstract (an idea) Beneficiary & recipient overlap to a large extent in English; can see a difference in preposition use She gave a present [to the baby] (recipient) She made a present [for the baby] (beneficiary) Cause The force bringing about a change of state a. Lightning struck Harry. b.
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syntax 5 - Today Syntax V Thematic/semantic roles (cont.)...

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