Chapter_17 - MANAGING A COMPETENCY BASED APPROACH 11th Edition Chapter 17 Working in Teams Don Hellriegel Susan E Jackson John W Slocum Jr Group

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Unformatted text preview: MANAGING: A COMPETENCY BASED APPROACH 11th Edition Chapter 17: Working in Teams Don Hellriegel Susan E. Jackson John W. Slocum, Jr. Group: two or more individuals who come into personal and meaningful contact on a continuing basis Informal group: a small number of individuals who frequently participate together in activities and share feelings for the purpose of meeting their mutual needs May support, oppose, or have no interest in organizational goals, rules, or higher authority Work team: a small number of employees with complementary skills who collaborate on a project, are committed to a common purpose, and are jointly accountable for performing tasks that contribute to achieving an organization’s goals Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.2 Empowered Teams Autonomous work groups Crews Self-managing teams Cross-functional teams Quality circles Project teams Task forces High-performance teams Emergency response teams Committees Councils Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.3 (Adapted from Figure 17.1) Increase innovation and creativity Improve speed of product development and other tasks Increase quality of goods and services Reduce costs Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.4 In its Hutchinson, Minnesota facility, 3M was able to increase its production gains by 300 percent after organizing its workforce into self-directed teams that were empowered to take corrective actions to resolve day-to-day problems. Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.5 Problem-solving work team: employees from different areas of an organization whose goal is to consider how something can be done better Quality circle: (also called a TQM team) employees who meet regularly to identify, analyze, and propose solutions to various types of workplace problems Task force: a team formed to accomplish a specific, highly important goal for an organization Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.6 (continued) Functional work team: members from a single department who have the common goal of considering issues and solving problems within their area of responsibility and expertise Multidisciplinary work team: employees from various functional areas and sometimes several organizational levels who collectively work on specific tasks Also called cross-functional teams Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.7 (continued) Examples of decision areas for a selfmanaging team Self-managing work team: employees who have nearly complete responsibility and authority for working together to make an entire product or deliver an entire service Trains new members Evaluates own team performance Communicates directly with customers Sets own operational goals and monitors progress within broader organizational goals Schedules own work and members’ vacations Designs work processes Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.8 Participates in selection of new members Decides on team leadership (which may rotate among members) (continued) Virtual work team: meets and does its tasks without everyone being physically present in the same place or even at the same time May have occasional face-to-face meetings Communicate through e-mail, electronically mediated groupware, voice mail, videoconferencing, and other technologies May be functional, problem solving, multidisciplinary, or self-managing Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.9 “As we attract, retain, and develop the best talent, we have to assess employees on a continuing basis for flexibility and adaptability to work in a virtual environment —that is the 21st-century workplace.” Joy Gaetano, Senior Vice President, USFilter, Palm Desert, California Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.10 Team Processes Team Performance Cohesiveness Innovation Trust Managing conflict Quality Speed Cost Team Satisfaction of Preparedness Individual For Future Members Trust in team With team process Ability to adapt to change With team members Decision making Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.11 (Adapted from Figure 17.3) With own development External Support Culture Member Selection Team Training Rewards Internal Processes and Team Development Effectiveness Team Design Size Location Technology Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.12 (Adapted from Figure 17.4) Internal Team Processes Development of the work team over time, personal feelings, and behavioral norms Work teams may develop along: a continuum of maturity, which ranges from low or immature (e.g., inefficient and ineffective) to high or mature (e.g., efficient and effective) AND a continuum of time together, which ranges from start (e.g., the first team encounter) to end (e.g., the point at which the team adjourns) Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.13 Internal Team Processes: Development of Work Teams Degree of Maturity High End or recycle End or recycle End or recycle Performing Norming Adjourning Storming End or recycle Forming Low Start Time Together Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.14 (Adapted from Figure 17.5) End “My advice for any new team: Don’t shortchange your startup. Take time to understand what you’re going to do and how you’re going to deal with the possible bumps along the way.” Jeanie Duck, Senior Vice President, The Boston Consulting Group Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.15 Forming stage: work team focuses on orientation to its goals and procedures Members may be anxious about the team and what they are supposed to do Storming stage: begins when competitive or strained behaviors emerge May involve resistance and impatience with the lack of progress Frustration, anger, and defensive behavior may appear Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.16 (continued) ? Norming stage: members become increasingly positive about the team as a whole, the other members as individuals, and what the team is doing Sometimes too much “we-ness”, harmony, and conformity occurs Performing stage: members usually have come to trust and accept each other and are focused on accomplishing their goals Diversity of viewpoints supported and encouraged Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.17 (continued) Performing stage (cont’d): Members willing to risk presenting wild ideas without fear Careful listening and accurate feedback occurs Clear and shared goals Consensus, but not conformity, sought Minimal internal politics Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.18 (continued) Adjourning stage: terminating task behaviors and disengaging from relationships Isn’t always planned and may be abrupt Planned adjourning recognition for participation and achievement Some teams are ongoing Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.19 Trust: members have confidence in each other Freedom: members act out of a sense of responsibility to the team Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.20 Openness: members interested in what others have to say Interdependence: members feel obligation to coordinate and work together to achieve common goals Rules of behavior that are widely shared and enforced by members of a work team Norms may specify: How much work to do How customers should be treated Importance of high quality What members should wear What kinds of jokes are acceptable How members should feel about the organization How they should deal with their managers, and so on Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.21 Exists When Three Criteria Have Been Met There is a performance standard of appropriate behavior for team members Members must generally agree on the standard Members must be aware that the team supports the particular standard through a system of rewards and punishments Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.22 Free rider: a team member who isn’t contributing fully to team performance but still shares in team rewards Groupthink: an agreement-at-any-cost mentality that results in ineffective work team decision making and may lead to poor solutions; Likelihood increases when: Peer pressure to conform is great A highly directive leader presses for a particular interpretation of the problem and course of action Need exists to process a complex and unstructured issue under crisis conditions Group is isolated Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.23 Productive controversy: when team members value different points of view and seek to draw them out to facilitate creative problem solving Focus on issues rather than people Defer decisions until issues and ideas are explored Follow procedures that equalize sharing of power and responsibility Managers can help shape norms Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.24 Internal Processes External System: Team design Member selection Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.25 Culture Reward system Team training Causes of Poor Team Performance: Team Design Team Size For innovative decision making, ideal work team is probably between five and nine members If large teams required, consider use of subteams With large teams be aware of backlash through clique lobbies Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.26 (continued) Team size—large team size tends to have the following effects Demands on leader time and attention are greater; leader becomes more psychologically distant from the team members Team’s tolerance of direction from the leader is greater and team’s decision making becomes more centralized Team atmosphere is less friendly, communications are less personal, more cliques form within the team Team’s rules and procedures become more formalized Likelihood of some members being free riders increases Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.27 Team proximity Proximity to other work teams and members of the organization Team members’ proximity to each other Ideal proximity among teams depends on work being done Virtual teams often create special challenges Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.28 Differences in societal cultures Language differences Weak or poor organizational culture Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.29 Incompatible personality traits among members Traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness needed Communication and teamwork competencies needed Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.30 Causes of Poor Team Performance: Team Training Poor or no team training Leadership development for managers or team leaders needed Team training needed for: how to manage meetings how to support disagreement how to commit to a decision how to use group-based technologies Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.31 Choices in Designing Reward Systems for Work Teams How can nonmonetary rewards be used to recognize excellent team performance? What portion of a person’s total monetary rewards should be linked to performance of the team (versus the performance of the individual or the business unit)? If rewards are to be linked to results, which effectiveness criteria should be used to evaluate team results? Individual results? Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.32 (Adapted from Table 17.2) (continued) Choices in Designing Reward Systems for Work Teams (cont’d) How should rewards be distributed among the members of a team? Should they all receive equal rewards? If not, on what basis should people receive differential rewards? Who should be responsible for the allocation of rewards among team members: team members, a team leader, someone outside the team? For global teams, how should cultural differences among members of the team and the pay systems used in different countries be addressed? Chapter 17: PowerPoint 17.33 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2011 for the course ACCT 101 taught by Professor Cosby during the Spring '11 term at Marquette.

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