Chapter18 - Don Hellriegel Susan E Jackson John W Slocum Jr...

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Unformatted text preview: Don Hellriegel Susan E. Jackson John W. Slocum, Jr. MANAGING: A COMPETENCY BASED APPROACH 11th Edition Chapter 18—Understanding Organizational Culture and Cultural Diversity Culture: the unique pattern of shared assumptions, values, and norms that shape the socialization, symbols, language, narratives, and practices of a group of people Shared assumptions: the underlying thoughts and feelings that members of a culture take for granted and believe to be true Value: a basic belief about something that has considerable importance and meaning to individuals and is stable over time Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.2 Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.3 (Adapted from Figure 18.1) Norms: rules that govern the behaviors of group members Socialization: a process by which new members are brought into a culture Symbol: anything visible that can be used to represent an abstract shared value or something having special meaning Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.4 Language: a shared system of vocal sounds, written signs, and/or gestures used to convey special meanings among members of a culture Narratives: the unique stories, sagas, legends, and myths in a culture Practices Taboos: culturally forbidden behaviors Ceremonies: elaborate and formal activities designed to generate strong feelings Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.5 Formal Control Orientation Flexible Clan Culture Entrepreneurial Culture Bureaucratic Culture Market Culture Stable Internal Focus of Attention Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.6 (Adapted from Figure 18.2) External Behavior of employees is governed by formal rules and standard operating procedures, and coordination is achieved through hierarchical reporting relationships Focuses on predictability, efficiency, and stability Tasks, responsibilities, and authority clearly spelled out Internal Focus Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.7 Behaviors of employees are shaped by tradition, loyalty, personal commitment, extensive socialization, and self-management Formal rules and procedures minimized High sense of member obligation and identity to the organization Long and thorough socialization process Mentors and role models Strong peer pressure Internal focus Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.8 “There’s a family mentality here as opposed to just being another number. That trickles down from the top. He [the CEO] knows everyone’s name and says ‘hi’ everyday when I see him during morning workouts at the gym.” Andres Smith, Accountant, Analytic Graphics, Inc., Easton, Pennsylvania Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.9 External focus and flexibility create an environment that encourages risk taking, dynamism, and creativity Commitment to experimentation, innovation, and being on the leading edge Creates change and quickly reacts to change Individual initiative, flexibility, and freedom seen as fostering growth Encouraged and rewarded Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.10 Market Culture Values and norms reflect the importance of achieving measurable and demanding goals, especially those that are financial and market based (e.g., sales growth, profitability and market share) Hard driving competitiveness dominates Profits orientation and quantifiable performance goals prevail Minimal informal social pressure on members Superior interactions with subordinates focus on performance-reward (economic) agreement and resource allocations Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.11 Exists when assumptions, values, and norms are shared by some— but not all—organizational members Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.12 Reason for merger failure Reasons Executives Give for Failed Mergers Inability to manage target business Clash of management styles/egos Inability to implement change in new organization Synergies were overstated Incompatible cultures 0 10 Percent of executives who state reason as primary explanation for merger failures Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.13 20 30 Percent 40 50 60 Departments and divisions within the organization have their own subcultures Occupational subcultures Geographically based subcultures Subcultures created by managers Positive cultures are created by managers who: recognize personal milestones, such as birthdays and employment anniversaries; hold public celebrations for professional achievements; sponsor picnics and parties; and listen to their employees and recognize the efforts they put into work Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.14 Diverse workforce demographics create subcultures Ethnicity Age Gender and other demographics Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.15 “My first conscious exposure to racism occurred when I came back to the States and went to public school. One of the children said something—I don’t remember now what—but I remember what my grandmother said to me: ‘They tried to put you in a box. Don’t ever let anybody put you in a box.’” Clifton R. Wharton, Jr., Former Chairman and CEO, TIAA-CREF Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.16 Cultural diversity: encompasses the full mix of the cultures and subcultures to which members of the workforce belong Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.17 Organization goals for managing cultural diversity include: Legal compliance Creating a positive culture for employees Create greater economic value for the organization Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.18 “HP is committed to building a work environment where everyone has an opportunity to fully participate in creating business success…We address our commitment [to diversity] through development programs targeted to the next generation of HP leaders, work-life initiatives for our employees, recruiting of diverse talent, and other efforts that help employees and managers foster an inclusive work environment. Additionally, we establish diversity goals to create accountability and drive our success. By weaving diversity into the fabric of our company, we create a mind-set in every employee and manager that will allow them to think consciously about diversity and inclusion in everything they do.” Emily Duncan, VP Culture and Diversity, Hewlett-Packard Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.19 Diagnosis: Before managers begin to design new approaches to managing diversity, they must understand how current practices affect the amount and nature of diversity Vision: Leaders must formulate and articulate a clear vision to persuade others to join them Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.20 (continued) Involvement: For the plan to be effective, those who are affected must buy into it Timing: Planned organization change usually follows an evolutionary—not revolutionary— path Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.21 Managing Cultural Diversity and Inclusion: Diversity Training Awareness training: designed to provide accurate information about the many subcultures present in the organization Harassment training: aimed at ensuring that employees understand the meaning of harassment and the actions the company will take when someone complains Harassment Training of being harassed Seminar Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.22 Create Family-Friendly Work Places Survey employees Offer options to meet employees’ needs Consider child-care initiatives Consider elder-care initiatives Hold Managers Accountable Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.23 Managing the reactions of the members of the dominate culture, who may feel that they have lost some of the power they previously had Synthesizing the diversity of opinions from individuals and using them as the basis for reaching meaningful agreement on issues Avoiding real and perceived tokenism and quota systems Chapter 18: PowerPoint 18.24 ...
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Chapter18 - Don Hellriegel Susan E Jackson John W Slocum Jr...

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