Module 2 - Consumption, Impacts and Institutions

Module 2 - Consumption, Impacts and Institutions - Sept 22...

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Sept. 22, 2011 Global fsheries Importance: - 15% oF animal protein intake, For more than 3 billion people - 45 million employments, 3.5% oF 1.3 billion in agriculture - Food security, livelihoods - biodiversity - renewable but exhaustible resource Status: - increasing role oF aquaculture and inland production; marine production plateauing/ Falling - non-Food uses decreasing: fsh Feed, Fertilizing - per capita availability increasing, but Chinese data very uncertain - China the largest producer oF fsh (62% oF global production, Asia accounts For 90%) - marine and inland capture Faltering due to over-fshing; 80% oF fsheries fshed to capacity or over capacity, or depleted - all oF high value fshed > fsh oF lower value remaining > over-fshing to cover costs > fsh younger, smaller fsh (eating babies) > Future productivity limited - more ʻ eFfcient ʼ fshing gear creates high levels oF by-catch which are discarded (oFten dead) back into ocean Overfshing - reduces stocks - degrades marine ecosystems & habitats - marine Food webs, predator-prey relationships distorted - e.g. steller sea lions in Alaska: sea lion ʼ s prey over-fshed, orkas begin Feeding on sea lions because their prey is disappearing - e.g. algae take over coral reeFs and suFFocate them - Future productivity likely to decline even as demand increases - economic and social costs: - potential revenue loss (fshers invest in ships, etc. but it doesn ʼ t oFFset) - current defcit $15 billion: ±eet over-capacity and no growth in the resource - monitoring and enForcement costs - economic and social devastation: resource dependency lends vulnerability to job insecurity, welFare dependency, etc. - Food security: supply stagnant and increasing demand, increasing world prices. Many poverty stricken depend on fsh protein - con±ict: shared resource ²actors: - growing demand - technology (vessels, fshing gear) - competition acts as an incentive
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- driftnets: progressively longer (up to 6 km), cumulatively enough to encircle world; UNGA implemented limit of 2.5 km - ʻ ghost ʼ Fshing: old nets adrift in sea continue to ensnare - non-selective gear: greater “efFciency” - trawlers: large by-catch, destroy habitat - long distance factory freezer trawlers - EfFciency: in this case, developed short term gain at the expense of long term well being - “pulse” Fshing (reconnaissance) - common property resource: belongs to everyone but no on in particular - poorly deFned property rights (who can use, owner privileges and responsibilities, forbidden actions) - exclusivity (cost and beneFts accrue to owner) violated, poor enforcement (free from involuntary seizure or encroachment from lands): inefFcient property rights -> potential for over-use and exploitation, arising from lack of incentive to care for resource since costs can ±ow to others (negative externality) or beneFts cannot be fully captured (positive externality) - “tragedy of the commons”: Garret makes case that all common property resources are depleted to detriment of all
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2011 for the course ENVR 201 taught by Professor Badami during the Spring '08 term at McGill.

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Module 2 - Consumption, Impacts and Institutions - Sept 22...

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