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Module 2 - Urban transport

Module 2 - Urban transport - Module 3 Urban Transport Oct 6...

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Module 3: Urban Transport Oct. 6, 2011 A brief history: explains different types and legacy of historical policies - walking city - pre 19th cent. - highly compact - narrow, unpaved streets - mixed uses - later allocation for horses and carts - rich & poor separation: geographic, or vertically (medieval cities) - Trains - 19th cent. - long-distance travel (inter-urban) - steam had many constraints, inconvenient for local transport - Streetcar city (1880- WWII) - freed cities from tight geometric constraints - suburbs - development and transport go hand in hand - Auto city (post WWII) - retrofitting some cities: - some resisted - new cities entirely built around cars Street grids reflect era at which they were developed: - medieval cores: infrastructure for walking within core leads to higher use of public transport and more walking - grid structure of American cities: allowed parcels for development and accommodated streetcar/horse carts - widespread grid (e.g. Mississauga): auto-oriented - suburbs have disconnected, arterial cul-de-sacs make walking inconvenient Spacial distribution of population: - density vs. area; area of Atlanta vs. Barcelona - small spread, high density: easy to provide good public transit service, expensive to drive (land has high cost, so parking is expensive) - large, low density spread: auto transport more convenient, less public transit Car travel across rich world: - US has higher modal split for automobile - but average commute also much larger in more recent cities - policy (explains Canada vs. US): taxation on cars and gas, investment in public transport, land use planning and infrastructure What is the urban transport problem?
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- transport is a derived demand (travel for a purpose, not for pleasure) - mobility is not an end itself - benefit: allows other activities to take place - expanded labour markets to advance technology and society - greater choice in jobs, shopping - promoting competition - expanded recreational opportunities - accessibility vs. mobility - mobility: how can I get from A to B? - emphasis on speed and cost of travel - promote through infrastructure - accessibility: I ʼ m at A; how can I get to daycare/grocery store/coffee shop - location of destinations AND transport matter - promote mix of uses, density and infrastructure (emphasis of walking cities) October 13, 2011 Externalities: - indirect effects of an activity that affect others - don ʼ t work through price system (no cost associated with the effects) - distinction between social vs private costs and benefits PRIVATE benefits costs SOCIAL - transport externalities: - congestion - safety - public health (increased obesity) - local air pollution - climate change (only bearing 1/7B th of cost) - noise, severance (how transport infrastructure can divide community: e.g. Parc & Pins) - historically: horse manure How do we deal with externalities?
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Module 2 - Urban transport - Module 3 Urban Transport Oct 6...

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