final unit - More on Pregnancy - nutrient needs, energy,...

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More on Pregnancy - nutrient needs, energy, timesters 2+3, 300 kcals a day - recommended weight gains: 2-4 lbs, for trimester 1 - trimester 2-3 should be ¾-1 lbs - like to see a woman who is normal weight before pregnancy gain 25-35 lbs. - woman who is underweight should gain 28-40 pounds. Woman who is overweight should be a little less. 15-25 lbs - breakdown o baby: 8 lbs o placenta: 1 o amniotic fluid: 2 o breast: 3 o blood: 4 o increase in fat of 2-8 pounds o muscle: 2 pounds protein and vitamin requirements - up by 10-15 grams. - Vitamin D from calcium - Folate: low intakes are associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects. Spinal column doesn’t close properly, spina bifida. Minerals - iron needs double - deficiency is related to premature birth, low birth rate, increased medical problems. - Heme iron: meat fish poultry. - Nonheme: whole grains, beans, dark leafy greens, dried fruit, raisins - Need to enhance absorption of that iron, can do it with vitamin C. - MFP factor\ - Supplements can cause nausea and constipation - Calcium: RDA is up by 50%, milk products, greens - Food plan: 3 servings of milk products, 3 servings of protein foods, 3 servings of vegetables, fruit, 6 servings of grains. - Vegetarians/vegeans, include plant/protein foods - Iron: remember to enhance the absorption of plant sources with vitamin C foods. Consider fish - Vegetarians should also supplement with iron during pregnancy. - Calcium: plant sources are fine. If you are a vegean, should eat dark leafy greens on a daily basis. Fortified soy milk, orange juice - Vegans: supplement with vitamin B-12. - What effect does all this have: world war 2 famines in Netherlands. - Fewer births and fewer birth weights - Less than 1000 calories a day, we see slower growth and development, both occur more slowly - Low socioeconomic status is associated with worst outcome of pregnancy
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- Risk factors o Obesity, o Poverty o Poor or absent or late prenatal care o Drug or alcohol or tobacco use all affect outcome in a negative way o Pica: people consume non-food items o Pre-natal fasting or dieting of more than 12 hours is a risk factor. o Low carbohydrate diet. o Not eating carbs for more than 12 hours is a risk factor in outcome of pregnancy o Inadequate weight gain o Excessive caffeine intake o 2 cups of coffee a day, 4 cups of soft drinks, watch out for caffeine o physiological changes during pregnancy, some of these changes cause problems o placental hormones, which relax muscle tone. Can cause heart burn because it affects esophagus sphyncter. Reflux o try sitting upright after eating, avoid high fat foods o eat fiber edema - fluid accumulation, swelling in the ankles, - it is only dangerous if it is accompanied by hypertension - eclampsia: pregnancy enduced hypertension. Can cause convulsions, liver and kidney damage, and death - adequate calcium can help prevent that. -
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2011 for the course NUTRI SCI 132 taught by Professor Anderson during the Spring '08 term at University of Wisconsin.

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final unit - More on Pregnancy - nutrient needs, energy,...

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