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EXAM #1 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1 Key Terms Storm-and-Stress view: G. Stanley Hall’s concept that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings Stereotyp e: a generalization that reflects our impressions and beliefs about a broad group of people. All stereotypes refer to an image of what the typical member of a specific group is like Adolescent generalization gap: Adelson’s concept of generalizations about adolescents based on information regarding a limited, often highly visible group of adolescents Five C’s 1. Competence: involves having a positive perception of one’s actions in domain specific areas social, academic, physical, career, so on 2. Confidence: consists of having an overall positive sense of self-worth and self-efficacy (a sense that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes) 3. Connection: characterized by having positive relationships with others, including family, peers, teachers, and individuals in the community 4. Character: comprised of having respect for societal rules, an understanding of right and wrong, and integrity 5. Caring/compassion: encompasses showing emotional concern for others, especially those in distress Contexts: settings in which development occurs. These settings are influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors Social Policy: a national government’s course of action designed to influence the welfare of its citizens Development: the pattern of change that begins at conception through the life span. Most development involves growth, although it also includes decay (as in death and dying) Biological Processes: physical changes in an individual’s body Cognitive Processes: changes in an individual’s thinking and intelligence Socioemotional Processes: changes in an individual’s personality, emotions, relationships with other people, and social contexts Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience: explores links between development, cognitive processes, and the brain
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Social Developmental Neuroscience: examines connections between socioemotional processes, development, and the brain Childhood: includes the prenatal period, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood Prenatal Period: the time from conception to birth Infancy: the developmental period that extends from birth to 18 or 24 months Early Childhood: the development period extending from the end of infancy to about 5 or 6 years of age; sometimes called the preschool years Middle and Late Childhood: the developmental period extending period extending from about 6 to about 10 or 11 years of age; sometimes called the elementary school years Adolescence: the developmental period of transition from childhood to adulthood; it involves biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes. Adolescence begins at approximately 10 to 13 years of age and ends in the late teens Early Adolescence: the developmental period that corresponds roughly to the middle school or
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