Exam 2 study guide

Exam 2 study guide - Exam 2 Review Sheet These are some key...

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Exam 2 Review Sheet These are some key issues to look over. Make sure to be familiar with the material covered in the class and in the book! The neuron o Nerves cells, the nervous system’s basic units A neuron has three basic parts Cell Body Dendrite: the receiving part of the neuron Axon: carries information from the cell body to other cells Brain structure o Adolescence undergo significant structural changes fMRI: creates a magnetic field around a person’s body and bombards the brain with radio waves. The result is a computerized image of the brain’s tissues and biochemical activities o Corpus Callosum: a large bundle of axon fibers that connect the brain’s left and right hemispheres Thickens in adolescence and improves their ability to process information o Prefrontal Cortex: highest level of the brain’s frontal lobes that is involved in reasoning, decision making, and self-control “judgment” region reins intense emotions but does not finish developing until age 20 o Amygdala: a portion of the brain’s limbic system that is the seat of emotions such as anger Develops quickly and before other regions that help control it (prefrontal cortex) Brain plasticity, pruning o Myelineation: the process by which the axon portion of the neuron becomes covered and insulted with a layer of fat cells, which increases the speed of efficiency of information processing in the nervous system o Synapses: gaps between neurons, where connections between the axon and dendrites take place Twice as many synaptic connections are made than will ever be used
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“pruning”: connections that are used are strengthened and survive; unused are replaced by other pathways or disappear By the end of adolescence individuals have fewer, more selective, more effective neuronal connections than they did as children Pruning indicates that the activities adolescents choose to engage in and not engage in influence which neural connections will be strengthened and which will disappear Neurotransmitters: chemicals that carry information across the synaptic gap between one neuron and the next Scientists are interested in the extent to which environmental experiences influence the brain’s development. Also they want to know how much plasticity the brain retains as individuals progress through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood Brain Plasticity o The cerebral cortex is highly plastic in childhood in adolescence Research had investigated: o It has recently been discovered that individuals can generate new brain cells throughout their lives Researchers have documented neurogenesis in only two brain regions Hippocampus (memory) Olfactory Bulb (smell) o Not known what function new brain cells perform o In childhood and adolescence, the brain has a remarkable ability to repair itself The earlier the injury occurs the more likely recovery is successful
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Exam 2 study guide - Exam 2 Review Sheet These are some key...

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