In November 1922, when Einstein and Elsa were visiting Japan as part of an extended tour of the Far East, they received the news that Einstein had been awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics. Although Einstein was most famous for his theory of relativity, the prize was officially awarded for his work on quantum theory. Throughout the first quarter of the century, Einstein made many important contributions to this field, the first of which was his 1905 paper on the photoelectric effect. From 1905 to 1923, he was one of the only scientists to take seriously the existence of light quanta, or photons. However, he was strongly opposed to the new version of quantum mechanics developed by Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schroedinger in 1925-26, and from 1926 onwards, Einstein led the opposition to quantum mechanics. He was thus both a major contributor to and a major critic of quantum theory.
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