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132 Discussion #4-answer key 10.11.11

132 Discussion #4-answer key 10.11.11 - 1 NS 132 Discussion...

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1 NS 132 Discussion 4 – Answer Key I. Proteins & Lipids PROTEINS LIPIDS Definition Very long chain of amino acids Soluble in organic solvents, not water. Types 1. Enzymes 2. Hormones (i.e. peptides) 3. Antibodies 4. Neurotransmitters 1. Fatty acids : saturated, monounsaturated & polyunsaturated. 2. Triglycerides (TG) 3. Phospholipids 4. Sterols (i.e. cholesterol) Structure Made of amino acids (AA); 20 needed by body o 9 essential An –HN2 & COOH group 1. FA – long carbon chains 2. TG – three FA’s bond to glycerol 3. Phospholipids – TG with one FA replaced by phosphorous containing substance. 4. Sterols – Multi-ring structure Functions 1. Body constituents : a. Blood clotting b. Transporters (i.e. hemoglobin, lipoproteins) 2. Structural components : muscle, bone, cell membrane 3. Fluid balance : osmotic pressure 4. Acid-base balance : To maintain constant conditions in the body 5. Regulation : biochemical functions and hormones role in body 6. Nerve impulse transmission : 2 AA’s are precursors of neurotransmitters 7. Immunity (i.e. antibodies) 8. Energy: 4kcals/g Basics : 1. Energy: 9kcals/g 2. Cell membrane, saturation Eicosanoid : lipid regulatory substance Thromboxanes & prostaglandins; blood clotting, blood pressure, vasodilation. Essential FA : Omega-3 ↓ inflammation Omega-6 ↑ inflammation Cholesterol : Cell membrane, bile acids, steroid hormones. Digestion & transport Stomach ↓ (denaturation; HCl/protease) Small intestine (mucosal cells) ↓ (down to AA/short peptides) Bloodstream Cells Stomach (lipase enzymes) Small intestine Liver (bile) Pancreas (lipase) Bloodstream Cells Requiremen ts 1. Adults : 0.8g/kg/day a. Female: 46-50 g/d b. Male: 58-63 g/d 2. Children : 2.2g/kg/d 3. Athletes : 1.2-1.8 g/kg/d <30% kcal from all fats <10% saturated fat <300mg of dietary cholesterol
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2 Sources 1. Dairy products 2. Meat products & legumes 3. Some grains & vegetables 1. Saturated FA : animal fats & tropical oils 2. MUFA’s : Vegetable oils 3. PUFA’s : ω-6; vegetable oils, ω-3; fish oils 4. Sterols : animal source Others Protein Quality
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