discussion 12_6_2011_TF - NS 132 Phytonutrients Cancer and...

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NS 132 12/6/11 Phytonutrients, Cancer , and Life Cycle- Answers Phytonutrients and Cancer Phytonutrients are a nutrient component of plant foods that play a role in maintaining health False, phytonutrients are a non-nutrient component of plant foods Studies have shown that fruits and vegetables have a protective effect against only types of stomach cancer. False, for a number of cancer sites such as cervix, ovary, breast, pancreas, stomach, lung, colon, bladder, etc Fruits/veggies cancer preventative effects aren’t likely due to one specific nutrient. True, F/Vs are helpful likely due to a number of factors including: they are nutrient dense, they displace things like sat fat., and are high in phytonutrients. Vitamin A is viewed as a protective factor in cancer, and the higher the levels of retinol in blood, the lower the cancer risk. False, human blood levels of retinol do NOT correlate with cancer risk Antioxidants like B-carotene work by quenching free radicals so that they do not damage DNA and lead to cancer. True Large clinical trials on Finnish smokers showed that B-carotene was protective against cancer. False, it failed to protect against cancer and enhanced carcinogenesis Carotenoids may just be a marker for the real protective factors, such as phytochemicals, which may protect against cancer since plants are very chemically complex. True A teratogen is a chemical that damages DNA and initiates cancer False, that statement describes a carcinogen Stomach cancer has decreased because foods no long contain nitrates. False, there are better food preservation to prevent spoilage (spoiled foods may contain carcinogens) The 3 stage model of cancer (carcinogenesis) takes place within days if exposed to carcinogens. False, the process may take decades and damage to cells rarely progress to cancer It’s during the progression stage when it takes 3-10 insults to the same cell to transform it into a cancer cell. False, the promotion stage is when a normal cell is transformed into a cancer cell. Angiogenesis is the formation of blood supply to the tumor and takes place during the progression stage True Treatment for cancer takes place during the progression stage, when tumor is detected True, takes 10^9 cells for detection
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NS 132 12/6/11 All tumors have unregulated growth and are invasive. False, all tumors are characterized by defects in growth regulation controls, but only malignant tumors are classified as invasive (ability to invade other tissues adajacently located). Can also metastasize to far away tissues/organs. Phytonutrients can interfere with any of the three stages of cancer development. True, why phytonutrients are of such importance in regards to cancer prevention. Anti-hormones such as Genisten, Lignans and Indoles decrease body levels of estrogen.
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discussion 12_6_2011_TF - NS 132 Phytonutrients Cancer and...

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