Phytonutrients, Cancer , and Life Cycle- Answers
Phytonutrients and Cancer
Phytonutrients are a nutrient component of plant foods that play a role in maintaining health
False, phytonutrients are a non-nutrient component of plant foods
Studies have shown that fruits and vegetables have a protective effect against only types of
False, for a number of cancer sites such as cervix, ovary, breast, pancreas, stomach,
lung, colon, bladder, etc
Fruits/veggies cancer preventative effects aren’t likely due to one specific nutrient.
True, F/Vs are helpful likely due to a number of factors including: they are nutrient
dense, they displace things like sat fat., and are high in phytonutrients.
Vitamin A is viewed as a protective factor in cancer, and the higher the levels of retinol in blood,
the lower the cancer risk.
False, human blood levels of retinol do NOT correlate with cancer risk
Antioxidants like B-carotene work by quenching free radicals so that they do not damage DNA
and lead to cancer.
Large clinical trials on Finnish smokers showed that B-carotene was protective against cancer.
False, it failed to protect against cancer and enhanced carcinogenesis
Carotenoids may just be a marker for the real protective factors, such as phytochemicals, which
may protect against cancer since plants are very chemically complex.
A teratogen is a chemical that damages DNA and initiates cancer
False, that statement describes a carcinogen
Stomach cancer has decreased because foods no long contain nitrates.
False, there are better food preservation to prevent spoilage (spoiled foods may contain
The 3 stage model of cancer (carcinogenesis) takes place within days if exposed to carcinogens.
False, the process may take decades and damage to cells rarely progress to cancer
It’s during the progression stage when it takes 3-10 insults to the same cell to transform it into a
False, the promotion stage is when a normal cell is transformed into a cancer cell.
Angiogenesis is the formation of blood supply to the tumor and takes place during the
Treatment for cancer takes place during the progression stage, when tumor is detected
True, takes 10^9 cells for detection