Discussion 12_6_2011

Discussion 12_6_2011 - Ch.12 Phytonutrients Non-nutrient...

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Ch.12 Phytonutrients Non-nutrient components of plant foods Play role in maintaining health Nutrients specific chemicals essential and necessary body can’t synthesize deficiency symptoms Phytonutrients are not nutrients Not essential no deficiency symptoms Plant foods and cancer Fruits and vegetables Protective effect in 128 of 156 studies Lowest consumers have double the risk of highest consumers protective against wide variety of cancers lettuce, leafy greens, onions, carrots, cabbage family Why do plant foods protect us? Nutrient dense Displacement of fat, saturated fat Nutrients as protective factors Vitamin A as protective factor Retinol role in cell differentiation
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Cancer cells undifferentiated Protective in cell culture studies Deficiency increases cancer risk in animals But, blood levels not correlated with cancer risk Vitamin A precursors as protective factor Blood levels of beta-carotene correlative with cancer risk Beta-carotene hypothesis: protects without conversion to retinol Powerful anti-oxidant Anti-oxidant hypothesis Free radical oxygen damages DNA Oxidative damage to DNA causes cancer Antioxidants quench free radicals Block DNA damage Also vitamins C and E Carotenoids <1/3 of US Vitamin A intake comes from carotenoids 500 carotenoids in nature yellow/orange fruits and veggies have B-caroteneo dark leafy greens: lutein tomatoes: lycopene Beta-Carotene Trials Large clinical trials Finnish study of 29,000 male smokers Beta-carotene and vitamin C failed to protect against lung cancer
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One trial showed beta-carotene (a pro-oxidant) increase carcinogenesis Phytochemicals (phytonutrients) Epidemiological studies showed: carotenoid intake cancer risk Carotenoids may be a marker for agents responsible for epidemiological findings 10,000 chemicals in a tomato studied in animals and cell culture. Not many human studies on individual phytonutrients Carcinogenesis formation of cancer Carcinogens—chemicals which damage DNA and initiate cancer
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This note was uploaded on 12/14/2011 for the course NUTRI SCI 132 taught by Professor Anderson during the Fall '08 term at Wisconsin.

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Discussion 12_6_2011 - Ch.12 Phytonutrients Non-nutrient...

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