PhytoNutrients - PhytoNutrients - non nutrient components...

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PhytoNutrients - non nutrient components of plants that have physiological effects on humans like decrease BP, HD, cholestral, reduce risk of chronic disease - non essential, but increase in risk for disease if not eating - humans have adapted to it over years Plant Foods and Cancer - 2/3rds of cancers can be attributed to the environment, mainly smoking, others like alcohol, toxic chemicals - fruits and veggies decreae cancer risk by ½. Cabbage is really good also Protective Nutrients - Vitamin A: retinol experiments show yes, but high blood levels not correlated with less cancer - Beta carotene: correlation - Antioxidant hypothesis: more antioxidants are better - Free radicals: atoms with unpaired electrons, try to steal electron, go crazy, kill everyone - Can damage DNA, cause cancer - Vitamins C, E, Selenium are good too Carotenoids - less 1/3 of US vitamin A comes from carotenoids, we mainly consume retinol from milk - only 500 carotoneoids in nature - FV, dark leafy greens are good, yellow orange Fruits - Supplements don’t help prevent cancer though, don’t take too much, need optimal range Phytonutrients again - diet rich in tomatoes is good, contain lycopene - not enough human studiest yet, but animal and test tube studies Carcinogens - chemicals that cause DNA damage and initiate cancer - can come from pollution, working on hazardous areas - food carcinogens o nitrites: found in ham, bacon for flavor, can be converted to nitrosamines o spoiled food: less likely due to fridge o molds: make nerve gas, like aflatoxin o carcinogens naturally present in foods: not common o food carcinogens not responsible for most cancer Cancer process - normal cells usually have apoptosis, programmed cell death around 50-100 cells - but canacer cell knocks apostotis genes out
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- 1) initiation: cell gets some DNA damage. More or less unavoidable, but we can cut down on frequency - 2) promotion: cell gets even more damage - 3) progression: go from one to many cancer cells Tumors - malignant tumors are invasiave and they metasize (grow into surrounding tissues and organs - metasis: spread of cancer to distant locations, cancer spreads everywhere Blocking action - phytonutrients are anti-carcinogens and block them form attacking DNA. - Tomatoes example protect gut from nitrates. - Detoxification enzymes: p-450 phase II enzymes. - Fruits and veggies produce more of these - Sulforaphane: broccoli and cabage - Phenols: fruits and veggies - Phase 1 enzymes: make pro carcinogens into carcinogens - Isothiocyanates in cabbage and broccoli fight these Anti-hormones - estrogen can promote breast uterine, ovarian, cancer, they bind to receptors on the cell - Genistein: found in soybeans, blocks receptors, estradiol can’t bind there - Isoflavones compete for estronges - Ligans: found in dietary fiber. Lower blood levels of estrogen - Indoles: found in broccoli, lower estrogen precursor. Mevalonate Pathway suppression
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This note was uploaded on 12/14/2011 for the course NUTRI SCI 132 taught by Professor Anderson during the Fall '08 term at Wisconsin.

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PhytoNutrients - PhytoNutrients - non nutrient components...

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