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EXAM #3 Population: 4 million (750k slaves) – Half of white population >16 yrs +Over 10 years, population grows by about 1/3; IMMIGRATION +Mostly RURAL; only 6 cities over 8k people +Egalitarian (no aristocracy), shoddy infrastructure +‘Land of Opportunity’ – social mobility (though very little respect) +Early 1800s: North has outlawed slavery; South very dependent on it I. +Washington inaugurated President in 1789, VP John Adams -Knew he was establishing the precedent for democracy -Creating a new model of government , setting the bar -Supported formality but rejected seeming similar to a King (“His Majesty”? Scepter? Robes? NO. President = citizen) +Henry Knox: Secretary of War +James Madison: Bill of Rights proposed to Congress, 1789 -Free Speech, Bear Arms, Due Process, etc. +Congress passed 5% revenue duty on products National Treasury +Judiciary Act of 1789: creates Attorney General of USA -Creates a hierarchy of Judiciary branch up to Congress (filter) +Exemplified the two political parties, democrat/republican a. Background +Hamilton: Secretary of Treasury -Born & raised in Caribbean, 1775 colonies -Supported revolution, in favor of revolution (military leader) -Very intelligent ; became aid to G. Washington -After war: lawyer – went to Constitutional convention -Married Elizabeth Schuyler; influential family in NY +Jefferson: Secretary of State -Born in VA, one of the earliest settling families there -Successful father, comfortable life -Went to college (law) & participated in continental congress -American ambassador to France b. Beliefs +Hamilton: Federalist -Men incapable of making decisions for the common good -Openly elitist: rich & well-born = better (should have power) -Admired British economic stability & growth -Believed in a loose interpretation of the constitution*
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-Industrialization required government to begin it +Jefferson: Republican -Pessimistic: human beings = inherently evil, corrupt, sinful -Believed that humans could learn to live without evil/sin -Favored “state rights” – should maintain majority of power -Government protects freedom, has enough power to function (Most power reserved for states) -Pro-French (Revolution in 1789, helped during war) -Does not want industrialization (negative > positive) -Envisioned America as a nation of small, independent farmers -Laissez-faire economics- no involvement from government III. Hamilton as Secretary of Treasury a. Financial Plan 1) Trying to establish American credibility 2) Trying to relieve some of the American debt 3) Create financial ties between rich and poor a.i. Report on the Public Credit: APPROVED +$50 million in debt (40 to citizens +Additional $25 million debt by the states
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