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Earth Systems Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Solar Energy to Earth...

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Chapter 2: Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons I. The Solar System, Sun, and Earth A. Solar system formation and structure: Nebular hypothesis : Solar system is condensed from a large, slowly rotating & collapsing cloud of dust and gas, a nebula. Earth’s orbit : 1. Perihelion: when Earth is closest to the sun, during the Northern Hemisphere winter on January 3 rd 2. Aphelion: when Earth is farthest from the sun, during the Northern Hemisphere summer on July 4 th II. The Solar Energy, From the Sun to Earth A. Electromagnetic Spectrum of Radiant Energy: 1. Electromagnetic Spectrum : -Sun radiates shortwave energy -Shorter wavelengths have higher energy -Earth radiates long wave energy -EM waves are similar to ocean waves energy waves 2. Wavelength : the distance between corresponding points on any two successive waves B. Incoming Energy at the top of the Atmosphere: Thermopause : region at the top of the atmosphere, it’s altitude is used for the determination of the solar constant Insolation :
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