Earth systems Chapter 16

Earth systems Chapter 16 - Chapter 16: The Oceans, Coastal...

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Chapter 16: The Oceans, Coastal Processes, and Landforms I. Global oceans and seas A. Chemical composition of sea water Water is the “universal solvent, dissolving at least 57 of the 92 elements found in nature Ocean is a homogenous mixture Seawater chemistry variations is consistent with changes in sea-floor spreading rates, volcanism and sea level Ocean chemistry is a result of complex exchanges among seawater, the atmosphere, minerals, bottom sediments, and living organisms. Seven elements that account for more than 99% of the dissolved solids in seawater: Chlorine, sodium, magnesium, sulfur, calcium, potassium, & bromine. 1. Salinity the concentration of natural elements and components dissolved in solution, as solutes Average Salinity 35% -usually varies between 34% to 37% -equatorial water 34.5% -subtropical oceans 36% 2. Brine seawater with a salinity of more than 35% ex: Persian Gulf 3. Brackish seawater with salinity of less than 35% ex: Baltic Sea B. Physical structure of the ocean Basic structure of the ocean is layered Sea water freezes at -2C (28.4F) at the surface II. Coastal System Components 1. The Littoral Zone area along the coast where sediments are constantly changing 2. Mean sea level (MSL) the average tidal levels recorded hourly at a given site over a long period Ocean topography is important for understanding sea surface changes Approximately 50% of current sea level rise is due to thermal expansion III. Coastal System Actions Shores and coasts are continuously modified by:
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This note was uploaded on 12/14/2011 for the course EARTH SYS 101 taught by Professor Asar during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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Earth systems Chapter 16 - Chapter 16: The Oceans, Coastal...

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