Lecture Oct-25-11 Chapter 16

Lecture Oct-25-11 Chapter 16 - Oct252011 Chapter16...

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Oct-25-2011 Bio 2870 A & P Ch-16  Neural Integration 2 1 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Chapter  16  Neural Integration II   Autonomic Nervous System and Higher–Order  Functions
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Oct-25-2011 Bio 2870 A & P Ch-16  Neural Integration 2 An Introduction to the ANS Figure 16-1 An Overview of Neural Integration.
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Oct-25-2011 Bio 2870 A & P Ch-16  Neural Integration 2 An Introduction to the ANS Figure 16-2 The Organization of the Somatic and Nervous Systems. Somatic Nervous System  (SNS)  Operates under conscious  control Seldom affects long-term  survival SNS controls skeletal muscles
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Oct-25-2011 Bio 2870 A & P Ch-16  Neural Integration 2 Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System  (ANS) Operates without conscious  instruction ANS controls visceral effectors Coordinates system functions:  cardiovascular, respiratory,  digestive, urinary, reproductive  Figure 16-2 The Organization of the Somatic and Nervous Systems.
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Oct-25-2011 Bio 2870 A & P Ch-16  Neural Integration 2 Divisions of the ANS Operates largely outside our awareness Has two divisions Sympathetic Division increases alertness, metabolic rate, and  muscular abilities “Kicks in” only during exertion, stress, or emergency “Fight or flight” Parasympathetic Division reduces metabolic rate and promotes  digestion Controls during resting conditions “Rest and digest” Two divisions may work independently Some structures innervated by only one division Two divisions may work together Each controlling one stage of a complex process
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Oct-25-2011 Bio 2870 A & P Ch-16  Neural Integration 2 Divisions of the ANS Sympathetic Division  Preganglionic fibers (thoracic and superior lumbar; thoracolumbar)  synapse in ganglia near spinal cord Preganglionic fibers are short Postganglionic fibers are long Prepares body for crisis, producing a “fight or flight” response Seven Responses to Increased Sympathetic Activity  Heightened mental alertness Increased metabolic rate Reduced digestive and urinary functions Energy reserves activated Increased respiratory rate and respiratory passageways dilate Increased heart rate and blood pressure Sweat glands activated
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Oct-25-2011 Bio 2870 A & P Ch-16  Neural Integration 2 Divisions of the ANS Parasympathetic Division   Preganglionic fibers originate in brain stem and sacral  segments of spinal cord; craniosacral Synapse in ganglia close to (or within) target organs Preganglionic fibers are long Postganglionic fibers are short Rest and repose Parasympathetic division stimulates visceral activity Conserves energy and promotes sedentary activities
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