Lecture 1 Sep-1-2011 chapter 2

Lecture 1 Sep-1-2011 chapter 2 -...

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CHAPTER  2 The Chemical Level Of Organization 1 The Chemical Level Of  Organization 9/1/2011
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Matter  is made up of  atoms Atoms join together to form chemicals with  different characteristics  Atomic Structure Nucleus (Contains protons and neutrons) and  Electron cloud (Contains electrons) Proton  (Positive charge, 1 mass unit)  Neutron  (Neutral, 1 mass unit)  Electron  (Negative charge, low mass) ATOMS 2 The Chemical Level Of  Organization 9/1/2011
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2-2 Chemical Bonds Chemical bonds involve the sharing, gaining,  and losing of electrons in the valence shell Three majors types of chemical bonds Ionic bonds attraction between  cations  (electron  donor) and  anions  (electron acceptor) Covalent bonds strong  bonds involving shared  electrons Hydrogen bonds weak polar bonds based on partial  electrical attractions 3 The Chemical Level Of  Organization 9/1/2011
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2-2 Chemical Bonds Chemical bonds form molecules and/or  compounds Molecules   :  Two or more atoms joined by strong  bonds Compounds  :  Two or more atoms  Of Different  Elements   joined by strong or weak bonds Compounds are all molecules, but not all  molecules are compounds H 2  = molecule only       H 2 O = molecule and compound 4 The Chemical Level Of  Organization 9/1/2011
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2-3 CHEMICAL REACTIONS Synthesis reaction   (anabolism- building up)  Forms chemical bonds A + B  AB Dehydration synthesis  (condensation) ABC—H + HO—DE  ABCDE + H 2 O Decomposition reaction   (catabolism- breaking  down) Breaks chemical bonds  AB  A + B Hydrolysis: ABCDE + H 2 ABC—H + HO—DE 5 The Chemical Level Of  Organization 9/1/2011
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2-3 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 6 The Chemical Level Of  Organization 9/1/2011
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2-3 CHEMICAL REACTIONS TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Exchange Reaction Aka  Displacement Reactions:  AB + C   AC + B Coupling Of Decomposition  And  Synthesis Reactions Decomposition Reactions:  AB   A + B Synthesis Reactions:  A + C   AC 7 The Chemical Level Of  Organization 9/1/2011
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2-3 CHEMICAL REACTIONS Types Of Chemical Reactions Reversible Reactions A Reaction That Occurs Simultaneously In Both Directions          AB  A + B At equilibrium the amounts of chemicals do not change even though the  reactions are still occurring: reversible reactions seek equilibrium, balancing opposing reaction rates  add or remove reactants:  reaction rates adjust to reach a new  equilibrium 
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This note was uploaded on 12/14/2011 for the course BIO 2870 taught by Professor Spranger during the Spring '08 term at Wayne State University.

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Lecture 1 Sep-1-2011 chapter 2 -...

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