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22_Lecture_Presentation (1) - Descent with Modification: A...

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Unformatted text preview: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life Chapter 22 Overview: Endless Forms Most Beautiful A new era of biology began in 1859 when Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species The Origin of Species focused biologists attention on the great diversity of organisms Darwin noted that current species are descendants of ancestral species Evolution can be defined by Darwins phrase descent with modification Evolution can be viewed as both a pattern and a process Consider the Fog-Basking beetle Lives in a dessert where rain is rare, but fog is common Is a member of a very diverse group of animals, the Beetles How does such biodiversity arrise? Darwins ideas had deep historical roots The Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed species as fixed and arranged them on a scala naturae The Old Testament holds that species were individually designed by God Carolus Linnaeus interpreted organismal adaptations as evidence that the Creator had designed each species for a specific purpose Linnaeus was the founder of taxonomy, the branch of biology concerned with classifying organisms He developed the binomial format for naming species Concept 22.1: The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species Figure 22.2 1809 1798 1812 1795 1830 1790 1809 1831- 36 1844 1859 1870 Lamarck publishes his hypothesis of evolution. Malthus publishes Essay on the Principle of Population. Hutton proposes his principle of gradualism. Charles Darwin is born. Darwin travels around the world on HMS Beagle. The Galpagos Islands Darwin writes his essay on descent with modification. On the Origin of Species is published. While studying species in the Malay Archipelago, Wallace (shown in 1848) sends Darwin his hypothesis of natural selection. 1858 Cuvier publishes his extensive studies of vertebrate fossils. Lyell publishes Principles of Geology. Ideas About Change over Time The study of fossils helped to lay the groundwork for Darwins ideas Fossils are remains or traces of organisms from the past, usually found in sedimentary rock, which appears in layers or strata Figure 22.3 Sedimentary rock layers (strata) Younger stratum with more recent fossils Older stratum with older fossils Paleontology , the study of fossils, was largely developed by French scientist Georges Cuvier Cuvier advocated catastrophism , speculating that each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe Geologists James Hutton and Charles Lyell perceived that changes in Earths surface can result from slow continuous actions still operating today Lyells principle of uniformitarianism states that the mechanisms of change are constant over time This view strongly influenced Darwins thinking Lamarcks Hypothesis of Evolution Lamarck hypothesized that species evolve through use and disuse of body parts and the inheritance of acquired characteristics The mechanisms he proposed are unsupported by evidence...
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This note was uploaded on 12/14/2011 for the course BISC 13004 at USC.

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22_Lecture_Presentation (1) - Descent with Modification: A...

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