Humanities 201 Final Study Guide

Humanities 201 Final Study Guide - Hobbes Thomas Hobbes...

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Hobbes Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)—natural laws, inalienable rights, natural rights, laws of nature. State of nature and Social Contracts. -1 st so-called modern philosopher (modern aka 1600-1900) -also 1 st philosopher who wrote in English -attended Oxford U at only 14 yrs old -very well-versed; physics biology astronomy -unite study of natty sci and politics, and apply to human nature/behavior; All mechanical -most of his life was full of 1 bloodbath after another… -he didn’t know anything about war -agrees that all men created equal. Also, everything we do is towards some ultimate goal -move towards things we life, and avoid what we dislike. -Can’t be self-interested and altruistic…we’re only self-interested Concepts -Natural Law Theory: -The ancient background— -What did ancients think nature was? -Greeks thought universe was based on (natural) unchanging laws… -regulated how everything functioned, and everything has a function -Plato and his eternal laws -Epictetus and his set plan that we need to figure out -Aristotle and his function argument -Underlying order defines would and everything else -Aquinas (everything has a purpose) -Hobbes looks back at Aristotle and his views of nature -these are his starting points *We can look out at nature and see what IS the case, and naturally figure out what OUGHT to be the case -all things incline towards proper acts and ends -ex. (Prof.): tomato seeds incline to being tomato -introduction of natural laws— how we are in the State of Nature: rational, self-interested, etc. -def: rules and laws of morality and tie back to nature; conform to nature -look at case and determine what it ought to be: -ex. It is good to breathe oxygen rather than nicotine (FACT) Therefore, you shouldn’t smoke. (OUGHT/inclination) -what about moral situation? Can we look to nature to see how we ought to behave? -ex. Declaration of Independence -we hold these truths to be self-evident… -we already know think; already there, obvious
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- inalienable rights (can’t be made strange to you): life, liberty, pursuit of happiness -all men created equal… -if some men aren’t equal, we ought to fix it -right to rebel=law of nature -“Like all living things we seek to preserve our own being”… -we ought to preserve our existence -“Like all living things, we seek to reproduce and take care of young”… (fact of nature) -traditional fam life is what we ought to do -purpose of sex is reproduction -ought to only have sex for reproductive reason, or else don’t do it. **Which laws of nature am I going to choose to follow?** -Natural Rights : -complicated everything by adding natural rights -Aquinas: no, we do not have natural rights (ex. Sex) -justification attempt by saying sex with marriage…must regulate -Hobbes says we don’t have too many of these rights…only right to everything and right to self-preserve -Hobbes also says we must look to nature then run away from it. -human nature is god-awful
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Humanities 201 Final Study Guide - Hobbes Thomas Hobbes...

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