GreenhouseEffect

GreenhouseEffect - The Greenhouse Effect by Jonathan...

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Unformatted text preview: The Greenhouse Effect by Jonathan Gilligan EES 108 Earth and Atmosphere Tues. Sept. 6 Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Heat coming into the earth 2 3 Heat leaving the earth 2 The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 A Simple Model of the Greenhouse Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 A more realistic model of the atmosphere 8 Effect of clouds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Global heat budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 List of Figures 1 Radiative equilibrium without an atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 Infrared emission spectrum of earth as seen from space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 Thermal emission from sun and earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 Absorption of shortwave and longwave radiation by the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 Absorption of longwave radiation by the atmosphere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 Absorption and emission of longwave radiation by the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7 Balanced heat flow in the earth system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8 Heat flow in the real atmosphere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9 Global heat budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1 Introduction The temperature of the earth is determined by a balance of radiative heat coming in from the sun and going out to space. This handout explains the details of the earths radiative temperature and reviews the concept of the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect was first proposed in the early 19th century by the French scientist Joseph Fourier, who named it. Fourier though the earth was warmed by the same principle by which the glass windows in a greenhouse make the temperature inside significantly warmer than the temperature out- side. Fourier misunderstood how greenhouses workthey work because the windows stop convective cooling (wind), not radiative cooling. In 1859, the English scientist John Tyndall explained this effect properly and identified the role of carbon dioxide. In 1896, the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius first proposed that human production of carbon dioxide, from burning coal, would cause the earth to warm up. 1 J. Gilligan The Greenhouse Effect The basic principle is that something has a steady temperature only when the amount of heat flowing into it is exactly equal to the amount of heat flowing out of it....
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GreenhouseEffect - The Greenhouse Effect by Jonathan...

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