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2046chapter16 - Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning...

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1 Learning goals and key skills: head2right Understand the nature of the hydrated proton, represented as either H + ( aq ) or H 3 O + ( aq ) head2right Define and identify Arrhenuis acids and bases. head2right Define and identify Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases, and identify conjugate acid-base pairs. head2right Relate the strength of an acid to the strength of its conjugate base. head2right Understand how the equilibrium position of a proton transfer reaction relates the strengths of acids and bases involved. head2right Describe the autoionization of water and understand how [H 3 O + ] and [OH - ] are related head2right Calculate the pH of a solution given [H 3 O + ] or [OH - ] head2right Calculate the pH of a strong acid or strong base given its concentration head2right Calculate K a or K b for a weak acid or weak base given its concentration and the pH of the solution head2right Calculate pH of a weak acid or weak base or its percent ionization given its concentration and K a or K b . head2right Calculate K b for a weak base given K a of its conjugate acid, and similarly calculate K a from K b . head2right Predict whether and aqueous solution of a salt will be acidic, basic, or neutral head2right Predict the relative strength of a series of acids from their molecular structures head2right Define and identify Lewis acids and bases. Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Acids and Bases Arrhenius -An acid is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. -A base is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions. Brønsted-Lowry -An acid is a proton donor. -A base is a proton acceptor. Acids and bases may be inorganic (7 strong acids, 8 strong bases) or organic (acids have –COOH group): Amphiprotic – a substance that is capable of acting as an acid or a base e.g. HCO 3 - , HSO 4 - ,H 2 O
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2 What happens when an acid dissolves in water? HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Cl (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Water acts as a Brønsted-Lowry base and abstracts a proton (H + ) from the acid. As a result, the conjugate base of the acid and a hydronium ion are formed. Conjugate acids and bases HCN (aq) + H 2 O (l) CN - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) HClO (aq) + H 2 O (l) ClO - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) Acid and base strength •Strong acids are completely dissociated in water.
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