Unit-07.pdf - BDwbU 7 \u00c1vbg~jK weKvk f~wgKv \u00c1vbev` Abymv\u2021i gvbyl ev c\u00d6vwY wb\u2021Ri \u00c1vb I eyw\u00d7 c\u00d6\u2021qvM K\u2021i wk\u2021L| Zvu\u2021`i g\u2021Z wkLb n\u2021jv

Unit-07.pdf - BDwbU 7 u00c1vbg~jK weKvk f~wgKv u00c1vbev`...

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BDwbU 7: Ávbg ~jK weKvk f ~wgKv Ávbev` Abymv‡i gvbyl ev cÖvwY wb‡Ri Ávb I eyw× cÖ‡qvM K‡i wk‡L| Zvu‡`i g‡Z wkLb n‡jv KZ¸‡jv gvbwmK cÖwμqvi dj| GB cÖwμqvq AšÍfy©³ i‡q‡Q cÖZ¨ÿY, AwfÁZv I ` „wófw½| Ávbev`xiv g‡b K‡ib wkL‡bi mgq Avgiv Avm‡j GKwU mgm¨vi m¤§yLxb nB| GB mgm¨vc ~Y© cwi‡e‡k Avgiv wb‡Ri Ávb I eyw×i mvnv‡h¨ m¤ú ~Y© cwiw¯’wZi GKwU Qwe gvbmc‡U Gu‡K wb‡q mgm¨v mgvav‡bi †Póv Kwi| GB mgm¨vi mgvavbB nj wkLb| wkLb wbf©i K‡i wkïi myô z weKv‡ki Dci| cwiYgb I AwfÁZvi d‡j wkïi gv‡S μgea©gvb cwieZ©‡bi †h aviv cwijwÿZ nq ZvB n‡jv weKvk| GB μgea©gvb cwieZ©‡bi aviv KZ¸‡jv bxwZ Abymv‡i n‡q _v‡K Ges G‡Z i‡q‡Q KZ¸‡jv cÖwμqv I ch©vq| wkïi Ávb weKv‡ki gZev` m¤ú‡K© Rvbvi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb wkïi wewfboe eq‡mi weKvk m¤ú‡K© Rvbv| G D‡Ïk¨‡K mvg‡b †i‡LB BDwbU 7-G wkïi weKvk I Áv‡bi weKvk m¤úwK©Z eªæbvi, R u¨v wcqv‡R I fvBMU&w¯‹i gZev` m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| †h‡nZ z wkïi Áv‡bi weKvk wbf©i K‡i moevq y‡Kvl I gw¯Í‡®‹i weKv‡ki Dci †m Kvi‡Y moevq y‡Kvl I gw¯Í‡®‹i weKvk m¤ú‡K©I Rvbv ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| DcwiD³ wel‡qi ¸iæZ¡ Abyaveb K‡i BDwbU 7-†K wb‡g oei c uvPwU cv‡V fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| cvV 7.1 : wkk yi weKv‡ki aviYv cvV 7.2 : moevqy‡Kvl I gw¯Í‡®‹i weKvk cvV 7.3 : eªæbv‡ii Ávb weKvk gZev` Ges †k ÖwYK‡ÿ Gi cÖ‡qvM cvV 7.4 : R¨vu wcqv‡Ri Ávb weKv‡ki gZev` Ges †k ÖwYK‡ÿ Gi cÖ‡qvM cvV 7.5 : fvBMU&w¯‹i mvgvwRK MVbev` Ges †k ÖwYK‡ÿ Gi cÖ‡qvM
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¯‹zj Ae GW z‡Kkb GgGW †cÖvM Övg c„ôv 162 evsjv‡`k Dš§y³ wek¦we`¨vjq cvV- 7.1: wkïi weKv ki aviYv D‡Ïk¨ GB cvV †k‡l AvcwbÑ weKvk I ea©b Kx?Ñ Zv ej‡Z cvi‡eb| weKvk I ea©‡bi g ~j cv_©K¨ wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| weKv‡ki cÖwμqv Ges bxwZ¸‡jv eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| weKv‡ki ch©vq¸‡jv mbv³ I e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| wkïi weKvk m¤ú‡K© wkÿ‡Ki †Kb Rvbv cÖ‡qvRb Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| wkÿv_x©e„›`, G cv‡V Avgiv wkïi weKvk Ges Gi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z wKQ z welq m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Kie| mvaviYfv‡e weKvk ej‡Z eySvq ˆRweK, Ávbg ~jK, mvgvwRK Ges Av‡ewMK cwieZ©b, hv Mf©avi‡Yi mgq †_‡K ïiæ n‡q cy‡iv Rxeb cwimi ch©šÍ Pj‡Z _v‡K ( Santrock, 2006, c„. 35)| weKvk n‡”Q GKwU RwUj cÖwμqv †hLv‡b ea©b Ges ¶q G ` yÕ‡Uv cÖwμqvB wμqvkxj| e¨w³i Rxe‡b GB ` yÕwU cÖwμqv Mf©avi‡Yi g ~ûZ© †_‡K ïiæ K‡i Avg „Z y¨ wμqvkxj _v‡K| A‡b‡K Ôea©bÕ (Growth) Ges ÔweKvkÕ (Development) kã ` yÕwU‡K mgv_©K g‡b Ki‡jI kã ` yÕwU mgv_©K bq| ea©b n‡jv cwigvYMZ cwieZ©b (Quantitative Change) | wecix‡Z, weKv‡ki gva¨‡g †h cwieZ©b nq Zv‡K ¸YMZ cwieZ©b (Qualitative Change) e‡j| GKwU D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g welqwU eySv‡bv †h‡Z cv‡i| wkÿv_x©e„›`, Avgiv Rvwb GKwU wkï hLb Rb¥ MÖnY K‡i ZLb Zvi IRb n‡q _v‡K 5 †_‡K 8 cvDÛ Ges ˆ`N ©¨ 17-20 BwÂ| eqm evovi mv‡_ mv‡_ wkïwUi ˆ`N ©¨ I IRb DfqB evo‡Z _v‡K| ˆ`N © I IR‡bi GB e„w× n‡jv cwigvYMZ hv‡K Avgiv eje ea©b (Growth) | GKBfv‡e wkïwUi Ab¨vb¨ A½I evo‡Z _v‡K †m¸‡jv‡K Avgiv eje e„w×| eqm evovi mv‡_ mv‡_ wkïi ïa y e„w×B nq bv Zvi A½cÖZ¨½¸‡jv wKQ y ¶gZvI AR©b K‡i _v‡K| D`vniY¯^iƒc, R‡b¥i ci †h †QvU nvZwU wb‡q wkï wKQ zB Ki‡Z cvi‡Zv bv ax‡i ax‡i †m Zvi nvZwU w`‡q †Ljbv ai‡Z cv‡i, wjL‡Z cv‡i, nvZ w`‡q Zvi ˆ`bw›`b KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i| Zv n‡j †`Lv hv‡”Q †h Zvi nvZwU ïa y ˆ`‡N ©¨B ev‡owb Zvi ¸YMZ gv‡biI cwieZ©b n‡q‡Q| wkïi gv‡S GB ¸YMZ cwieZ©bwU‡KB Avgiv eje weKvk| wkÿv_x©e„›`, GZ¶Y Avcbviv Ôea©bÕ I ÔweKvkÕ m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cvi‡jb| cieZx© As‡k wkïi weKv‡ki
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