379_Physics ProblemsTechnical Physics

379_Physics ProblemsTechnical Physics - 13 Universal...

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13 CHAPTER OUTLINE 13.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 13.2 Measuring the Gravitational Constant 13.3 Free-Fall Acceleration and the Gravitational Force 13.4 Kepler’s Laws and the Motion of Planets 13.5 The Gravitational Field 13.6 Gravitational Potential Energy 13.7 Energy Considerations in Motion Planetary and Satellite Universal Gravitation ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q13.1 Because g is the same for all objects near the Earth’s surface. The larger mass needs a larger force to give it just the same acceleration. Q13.2 To a good first approximation, your bathroom scale reading is unaffected because you, the Earth, and the scale are all in free fall in the Sun’s gravitational field, in orbit around the Sun. To a precise second approximation, you weigh slightly less at noon and at midnight than you do at sunrise or sunset. The Sun’s gravitational field is a little weaker at the center of the Earth than at the surface subsolar point, and a little weaker still on the far side of the planet. When the Sun is high in your sky,
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