22CHAPTER OUTLINE22.1 Heat Engines and theSecond Law ofThermodynamics22.2Heat Pumps andRefrigerators22.3Reversible and IrreversibleProcesses22.4The Carnot Engine22.5Gasoline and Diesel Engines22.6Entropy22.7Entropy Changes inIrreversible ProcessesScale22.8Entropy on a MicroscopicHeat Engines, Entropy, and theSecond Law of ThermodynamicsANSWERS TO QUESTIONSQ22.1First, the efficiency of the automobile engine cannot exceed theCarnot efficiency: it is limited by the temperature of burningfuel and the temperature of the environment into which theexhaust is dumped. Second, the engine block cannot beallowed to go over a certain temperature. Third, any practicalengine has friction, incomplete burning of fuel, and limits setby timing and energy transfer by heat.Q22.2It is easier to control the temperature of a hot reservoir. If itcools down, then heat can be added through some externalmeans, like an exothermic reaction. If it gets too hot, then heatcan be allowed to “escape” into the atmosphere. To maintain
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