24CHAPTER OUTLINE24.1 Electric Flux24.2Gauss’s Law24.3Application of Gauss’s Lawto Various Charge Distributions24.4Conductors in ElectrostaticEquilibrium24.5Formal Derivation of Gauss‘s LawGauss’s LawANSWERS TO QUESTIONSQ24.1The luminous flux on a given area is less when the sun is low inthe sky, because the angle between the rays of the sun and thelocal area vector, dA, is greater than zero. The cosine of thisangle is reduced. The decreased flux results, on the average, incolder weather.Q24.2If the region is just a point, line, or plane, no. Consider twoprotons in otherwise empty space. The electric field is zero atthe midpoint of the line joining the protons. If the field-freeregion is three-dimensional, then it can contain no charges, butit might be surrounded by electric charge. Consider the interiorof a metal sphere carrying static charge.Q24.3The surface must enclose a positive total charge.
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