28 CHAPTER OUTLINE 28.1 Electromotive Force 28.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel 28.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules 28.4 RC 28.5 Electrical Meters 28.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety Circuits Direct Current Circuits ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q28.1 The load resistance in a circuit is the effective resistance of all of the circuit elements excluding the emf source. In energy terms, it can be used to determine the energy delivered to the load by electrical transmission and there appearing as internal energy to raise the temperature of the resistor. The internal resistance of a battery represents the limitation on the efficiency of the chemical reaction that takes place in the battery to supply current to the load. The emf of the battery represents its conversion of chemical energy into energy which it puts out by electric transmission; the battery also creates internal energy within itself, in an amount that can be computed from its internal resistance. We model the internal resistance as constant for a given battery, but it may increase greatly as the
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