chp 1-6 study guide for exam 1

chp 1-6 study guide for exam 1 - S ociology 101 Chapter One...

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Sociology 101 Chapter One - Sociology: The scientific study of interactions and relations among human beings. - Thomas Theorem: If one wants to understand why people do the things they do, one must take into account not only what is really going on in the situation but what people think is going on. Chapter Two - Industrial Revolution : The first countries to experience widespread social upheaval were those countries that first underwent industrialization. - August Comte : Father of sociology. o Law of three stages: First the theological stage, religious leaders were the major sources of knowledge and intellectual authority. Second the metaphysical stage where people turned to philosophers for guidance. The final positive or scientific stage would be based on scientific principles. - Emile Durkhiem : French sociologist o Collective Conscience: Similar circumstances lead people to have shared ideas, values, and goals. AKA mechanical solidarity. o Organic solidarity: As people become more specialized and different they grow more dependent on one another. - Ferdinand Tonnies : German Sociologist. o Gemeinschaft: communal relationships, based on affection not personal gain. o Geselsschaft: Social relationships, to achieve some specific goal. - Max Weber : (1864-1920) German Sociologist: o Rational Behavior: If one has a goal and one sits down to plot how to achieve that goal most efficiently. o Non-rational behavior: behavior that is not especially geared to achieving some goal but was simply to be experienced or appreciated for itself. - Karl Marx : (1818-1883) one of the founders of sociology. Believed people were misdirected and should focus on economics. o All but economy is epiphenomenal: only thing that mattered was production and distribution of goods, two classes factory owners and workers. All else (i.e. Art, literature, morals, law) is secondary. - Herbert Spencer : (1820-1903) Leading English sociologist, promoted social Darwinism and studied how societies evolve, similarly to animals. o
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chp 1-6 study guide for exam 1 - S ociology 101 Chapter One...

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