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974_Physics ProblemsTechnical Physics

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35 CHAPTER OUTLINE 35.1 The Nature of Light 35.2 Measurements of the Speed of Light 35.3 The Ray Approximation in Geometric Optics 35.4 Reflection 35.5 Refraction 35.6 Huygen’s Principle 35.7 Dispersion and Prisms 35.8 Total Internal Reflection 35.9 Fermat‘s Principle The Nature of Light and the Laws of Geometric Optics ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q35.1 The ray approximation, predicting sharp shadows, is valid for λ << d . For λ ~ d diffraction effects become important, and the light waves will spread out noticeably beyond the slit. Q35.2 Light travels through a vacuum at a speed of 300 000 km per second. Thus, an image we see from a distant star or galaxy
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Unformatted text preview: must have been generated some time ago. For example, the star Altair is 16 light-years away; if we look at an image of Altair today, we know only what was happening 16 years ago. This may not initially seem significant, but astronomers who look at other galaxies can gain an idea of what galaxies looked like when they were significantly younger. Thus, it actually makes sense to speak of “looking backward in time.” Q35.3 Sun Moon Note: Figure not at all to scale no eclipse partial eclipse Earth’s surface total eclipse (full shadow) no eclipse FIG. Q35.3 315...
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