40CHAPTER OUTLINE40.1 Blackbody Radiation andPlanck’s Hypothesis40.2The Photoelectric Effect40.3The Compton Effect40.4Photons andElectromagnetic Waves40.5The Wave Properties ofParticles40.6The Quantum Particle40.7The Double-Slit ExperimentRevisited40.8The Uncertainty PrincipleIntroduction to Quantum PhysicsANSWERS TO QUESTIONSQ40.1Planck made two new assumptions: (1) molecular energy isquantized and (2) molecules emit or absorb energy in discreteirreducible packets. These assumptions contradict the classicalidea of energy as continuously divisible. They also imply thatan atom must have a definite structure—it cannot just be asoup of electrons orbiting the nucleus.Q40.2The first flaw is that the Rayleigh–Jeans law predicts that theintensity of short wavelength radiation emitted by a blackbodyapproaches infinity as the wavelength decreases. This is knownas the ultraviolet catastrophe. The second flaw is the predictionmuch more power output from a black-body than is shownexperimentally. The intensity of radiation from the blackbody
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