Chapter 42517Q42.16The three elements have similar electronic configurations. Each has filled inner shells plus oneelectron in an sorbital. Their single outer electrons largely determine their chemical interactionswith other atoms.Q42.17When a photon interacts with an atom, the atom’s orbital angular momentum changes, thus thephoton must carry orbital angular momentum. Since the allowed transitions of an atom arerestricted to a change in angular momentum of ∆A= ±1 , the photon must have spin 1.Q42.18In a neutral helium atom, one electron can be modeled as moving in an electric field created by thenucleus and the other electron. According to Gauss’s law, if the electron is above the ground state itmoves in the electric field of a net charge of +−= +211eeeWe say the nuclear charge is screenedbythe inner electron. The electron in a He+ion moves in the field of the unscreened nuclear charge of2 protons. Then the potential energy function for the electron is about double that of one electron in
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