43CHAPTER OUTLINE43.1 Molecular Bonds43.2Energy States and Spectraof Molecules43.3Bonding in Solids43.4Free-Electron Theory ofMetals43.5Band Theory of Solids43.6Electrical Conduction inMetals, Insulators, andSemiconductors43.7Semiconductor Devices43.8SuperconductivityMolecules and SolidsANSWERS TO QUESTIONSQ43.1Rotational, vibrational and electronic (as discussed inChapter 42) are the three major forms of excitation. Rotationalenergy for a diatomic molecule is on the order of =22I, where Iisthe moment of inertia of the molecule. A typical value for asmall molecule is on the order of 1103meVeV=−. Vibrationalenergy is on the order of hf, where fis the vibration frequencyof the molecule. A typical value is on the order of 0.1 eV.Electronic energy depends on the state of an electron in themolecule and is on the order of a few eV. The rotational energycan be zero, but neither the vibrational nor the electronicenergy can be zero.
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