1204_Physics ProblemsTechnical Physics

1204_Physics ProblemsTechnical Physics - 43 Molecules and...

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43 CHAPTER OUTLINE 43.1 Molecular Bonds 43.2 Energy States and Spectra of Molecules 43.3 Bonding in Solids 43.4 Free-Electron Theory of Metals 43.5 Band Theory of Solids 43.6 Electrical Conduction in Metals, Insulators, and Semiconductors 43.7 Semiconductor Devices 43.8 Superconductivity Molecules and Solids ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q43.1 Rotational, vibrational and electronic (as discussed in Chapter 42) are the three major forms of excitation. Rotational energy for a diatomic molecule is on the order of = 2 2 I , where I is the moment of inertia of the molecule. A typical value for a small molecule is on the order of 11 0 3 meV eV = . Vibrational energy is on the order of hf , where f is the vibration frequency of the molecule. A typical value is on the order of 0.1 eV. Electronic energy depends on the state of an electron in the molecule and is on the order of a few eV. The rotational energy can be zero, but neither the vibrational nor the electronic energy can be zero.
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