44 CHAPTER OUTLINE 44.1 Some Properties of Nuclei 44.2 Nuclear Binding Energy 44.3 Nuclear Models 44.4 Radioactivity 44.5 The Decay Processes 44.6 Natural Radioactivity 44.7 Nuclear Reactions 44.8 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imagining Nuclear Structure ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q44.1 Because of electrostatic repulsion between the positively-charged nucleus and the +2 e alpha particle. To drive the α-particle into the nucleus would require extremely high kinetic energy. Q44.2 There are 86 protons and 136 neutrons in the nucleus 86 222 Rn. For the atom to be neutral, there must be 86 electrons orbiting the nucleus—the same as the number of protons. Q44.3 All of these isotopes have the same number of protons in the nucleus. Neutral atoms have the same number of electrons. Isotopes only differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. Q44.4 Nuclei with more nucleons than bismuth-209 are unstable because the electrical repulsion forces among all of the protons is stronger than the nuclear attractive force between nucleons. Q44.5
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