45CHAPTER OUTLINE45.1 Interactions InvolvingNeutrons45.2Nuclear Fission45.3Nuclear Reactors45.4Nuclear Fusion45.5Radiation Damage45.6Radiation Detectors45.7Uses of RadiationApplications of Nuclear PhysicsANSWERS TO QUESTIONSQ45.1A moderator is used to slow down neutrons released in thefission of one nucleus, so that they are likely to be absorbed byanother nucleus to make it fission.Q45.2The hydrogen nuclei in water molecules have mass similar tothat of a neutron, so that they can efficiently rob a fast-movingneutron of kinetic energy as they scatter it. Once the neutron isslowed down, a hydrogen nucleus can absorb it in the reactionnHH12+→11.Q45.3The excitation energy comes from the binding energy of theextra nucleon.Q45.4The advantage of a fission reaction is that it can generate much more electrical energy per gram offuel compared to fossil fuels. Also, fission reactors do not emit greenhouse gasses as combustionbyproducts like fossil fuels—the only necessary environmental discharge is heat. The cost involved
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