2010 Aug - Name: Student Number: Demo Group: UNIVERSITY OF...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–15. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 10
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 12
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 14
Background image of page 15
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Name: Student Number: Demo Group: UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO FACULTY OF ARTS AND SCIENCE SUMMER EXAMINATIONS 2010 CHM 139H1 5 Duration: 3 Hours Aids allowed: unprogrammed calculator. A periodic table and an equation sheet are attached to the back of the exam. The examination consists oftwo parts, A and B. Part A consists of 28 multiple choice questions, worth 2 marks each, which are found on pages 2—7. These questions must be answered on the computer sheet that accompanies this exam. Part B consists of 5 short answer questions, worth a total of 60 marks, found on pages 8-11. These questions must be answered in the spaces provided. WHEN YOU RECEIVE YOUR TEST PAPER AND COMPUTER ANSWER SHEET: 1. Write your name, student number and lab demo group on this page and page 11. On the computer sheet: 2. Write in your student number and bubble it in, as well as your last name and initials. (Hyphenated last names should be bubbled in without spaces or dashes.) 3. In the Subject box, write CHM 139 and your demonstrator group number. 4. Sign your name in the Signature box. 5. Do not make ANY marks outside of the shaded area. If any stray marks are made, the test form will not be graded. DURING THE EXAM: 1. Clearly circle on the test paper the letter (a, b, c, d, or e) for the best answer you choose for each question. 2. On the computer sheet, blacken the circle (a, b, c, d or e) which corresponds to the answer you have chosen for each question. Make sure that only one answer is blackened. Make heavy black marks that fill the circle completely. 3. Use soft pencil only (No.2 or softer). Do not use ink or ball point pen. 4. Erase cleanly any answer you wish to change. 5. The computer sheet MUST be filled in DURING the time allotted for the exam. 6. Part B must be answered in the spaces provided. AT THE END OF THE EXAM: Insert your computer answer sheet into your test paper. Remain seated until all test papers have been collected. GOOD LUCK! Page 1 ofll Part A: Multiple Choice Questions (28 questions, 2 marks each) 1. Which aqueous metal ion will reduce Ag+, but not Cu“? a) Fe2+ b) Fe3+ c) Mn2+ d) Sn2+ 9) Hg22* 2. A voltaic cell uses the following reaction and operates at 298K: Zn(s) + Cd2+(aq) —‘> Zn2+(aq) + Cd(s) What is the cell potential when [Cd2+] = 1.50 M and [Zn2+] = 0.150M? a) 0.39 V b) 0.29 V c) 1.23 V d) 1.17 V e) 0.35 V 3. Which of the following statements is TRUE? a) In a galvanic cell, electrical energy forces a non-spontaneous reaction to occur. b) The oxidation half-reaction occurs at the cathode. c) For a spontaneous reaction, the cell potential is negative. d) When E°ceu > 0, K < 1. e) In an electrolytic cell, the cathode has a negative charge. 4. Which of the following statements is FALSE? a) Reaction orders can be determined from the stoichiometry of the reaction. b) Reaction orders do not have to be integers. c) For a first order reaction, half-life is independent of initial concentration. (1) Half—life is the time required for the reactant concentration to reach half of its initial value. e) A plot of 1/[A]t vs time gives a straight line for a second order reaction. 5. A 262-mL sample of sugar solution containing 1.22 g of sugar has an osmotic pressure of 30.3 mmHg at 35 °C. What is the molar mass of the sugar? a) 388 g/mol b) 773 g/mol c) 2.95 x 103 g/mol d) 1.13 x 104 g/mol e) 7.84 x 104 g/mol 6. For the decomposition reaction: ABtg) —> Aig) + Big) rate = k[AB]2 and k = 0.98 M'1s-1. How long with it take for the concentration of AB to decrease from 0.65 M to 0.34 M? a) 0.32 s b) 0.66 s c) 1.4 s d) 2.6 s e) 3.1 s Page 2 of 11 7. For a galvanic cell, which of the following statement is TRUE? a) The anode is the positive electrode. b) The salt bridge is not required for the electrochemical cell to function. c) The cathode will gain mass as the cell operates. d) Reduction occurs at the anode. e) Electrons flow from the cathode to the anode in a galvanic cell. 8. From the listed standard electrode potentials, what is E0 for the cell: 1n(S) I 1n(0H)3(S) ll Sb02(aq) I Sb (S) In(OH)3(s) + 3e- —> ln(s) + 3OH- E0 = -1.00 V SbOz-(aq) + 2H20(l) + 3e- —> Sb(s) + 4OH- (aq) E0 = -0.66 V a] 0.98 V b) 1.68 V (c) 2.34V (d) 1.02 V [e] 0.34V 9. At 300 K, for the reaction A + B =C + D at equilibrium, AH = +500 k] and Kp = 1 x 1010. Which of the following statements is FALSE? , a) AG° = O 5 b) AG = 0 c) The forward reaction is endothermic. d) AG" > 0 e) The equilibrium favors the reactants. 10. For a process at equilibrium, which ofthe following statements must be TRUE? a) ASumverse is zero. I b) AGsys is less than zero. c] AHSyS is greater than zero. (1) AHsyS is equal to ASsys e) ASSyS is less than zero. 11. At 100 °C, 2.1 x 10'2 g ongCl dissolves in 1.0 L of water. What is the KSp ongCl at 100 °C? a) 4.1 x 10-4 -; b) 1.5 x 10.4 i c) 2.0 x 10-4 d) 2.1 x 10-8 e) 3.8 x 10-8 12. A system is at equilibrium when a) Keq = 1. b) the concentrations of reactants are equal to the concentration of products. d Q=L d) the forward and reverse reactions no longer occur at all. e) None of the above. WWW wwwwwawg—ua swim“.“we...“Mammywmwwaqe 13. How many grams of chromium metal are plated out when a constant current of 8.00 A is passed through an aqueous solution containing Cr3+ ions for 40.0 minutes? a) 3.45 g b) 6.15 g c) 10.3 g d) 31.0 g e) 5.23 g Page 3 of 11 .. .Hmwweaamw-EMWWF , r 14. Sodium metal reacts with water to produce hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide according to the chemical equation shown below. When 0.0300 mol ofNa is added to 100.00 g ofwater, the temperature ofthe resulting solution rises from 25.00°C to 37.90°C. If the specific heat of the solution is 4.18 J / (g - °C), calculate AH for the reaction, as written. Na(s) + H200) ——> NaOH(aq) + 1/2 H2(g) AH = ? a) -5.41 k] b) -90. 0 k] c) —180 k] d) -362 k] e) -1.80 k] 15. Calculate the work energy, w, when a gas expands from 15 L to 35 L against a constant external pressure of 1.5 atm. [1 L - atm = 101]] a) -5.3 k] b) —3.0 k] c) +3.0 k] d) +5.3 k] e) -3.8 k] A free energy curve is shown below for the reaction A + B = C + D. Questions 16 and 17 pertain to the this diagram: “AWN”. ..,...._.-m._.--.__m... ._ ....___.._____M_1._._.,._.____.___.1 > i 9 92 t 5 <1) ‘3 l | ‘ I r? 1‘ 1* d e f reactants products reaction progress -) 16. According to the diagram above, the forward reaction is a) nonspontaneous at d and e, and spontaneous at f. b) nonspontaneous at d, at equilibrium at e, and spontaneous at f. c) spontaneous at d, at equilibrium at e, and nonspontaneous at f. d) spontaneous at d, e, and f. 17. According to the diagram above for the reaction A + B = C + D, a) AG° is positive and the equilibrium mixture contains more products than reactants. b) AG° is positive and the equilibrium mixture contains more reactants than products. c) AG° is negative and the equilibrium mixture contains more products than reactants d) AG° is negative and the equilibrium mixture contains more reactants than products. Page 4 ofll 18. Which ofthe following salts give an acidic solution? Ka (H25) = 9 x 10-8; Ka (CHOOH) = 1.8 x 10-4; Ka (HF) = 6.8 x10-4; Ka (HCN) = 6.2 x 10-10; Kb (NHg) = 1.76 x10-5 a) KBr b) NH4HS c) NaCHOO d) NH4F e) KCN 19. Coal gasification can be represented by the equation: 2 C(s) + 2 H20(g) —> CH4(g) + C02(g) AH = ? Use the following information to find AH for the reaction above. C0(g) + Hz(g) —-> C(s) + H20(g) AH = ~131 k] C0(g) + H20(g) —> C02(g) + H2(g) AH = -41 k] C0(g] + 3 mg) —> CH4(g) + H20(g) AH = -206 k] a)15ld b)116ld c)-116ld d)-372k] e)-509k] 20. The following drawing is a representation of a reaction for which AH° = -22 k]. This reaction is likely to be e22 93% I f‘ 3 i N“; l % dfiggflfi_, id? ‘JJ C5 3) nonspontaneous at all temperatures. b) nonspontaneous at low temperatures and spontaneous at high temperatures. c) spontaneous at low temperatures and nonspontaneous at high temperatures. d) spontaneous at all temperatures. 21. You have two acid solutions of equal volume: the first is a 1.0 M solution ofthe strong acid HCl and the second is a 1.0 M solution of the weak acid CH3COOH. Which ofthe following statements are TRUE? a) The pH values at the equivalence points upon titration with NaOH will be the same for both acids. b) The weak acid cannot be neutralized with NaOH, a strong base. 0) The same indicator should be used in the titrations of the two acids. d) The strong acid and weak acid solutions will require the addition of the same amount of NaOH to reach the equivalence point. e) The initial pH values will be the same for the titrations ofthe two acids. 22. Microwave ovens work by irradiating food with microwave radiation, which is absorbed and converted into heat. Assuming all of the energy is converted to heat, how many photons with a wavelength of 15.0 cm are required to heat 350 g ofwater from 20.0 °C to 95.0 °C? The specific heat capacity ofwater is 4.184 Ig-1°C-1. @815x1m5 b)829x10w d829x1m0 d)2.37x102<3 e)115x1o% Page 5 ofll l i i 7; V Q i g t g “I? ‘i i i i Ii .1 E i F 9' is; i i i i i E 3' ij i .. . w. .121 amwwamx‘tw,“ may”, .. . mafim‘wsw‘.“ 23. Calculate AS° for the following reaction. Mg) + 2 02(g) ’9 2 Nozfg) Species 5°, I/(K-mol) N2 (g) 191.5 02 (g) 205.0 N02 (g) 240.0 a) -156.5 ]/K b) -121.5 J/K c) 15.51/K d) 636.51/K e) 480 ]/K 24. For the following reaction find Kp at 25°C and indicate whether Kp should increase or decrease as the temperature rises. NH4HS(s) = H25(g) + NH3(g) AH° = 83.47 k] and AG° = 17.5 k] at 25°C. a) K, = 8.6 x 10-4 and Kp should increase as the temperature rises. b) Kp = 8.6 x 10-4 and Kp should decrease as the temperature rises. c) Kp = 1.2 x 103 and Kp should increase as the temperature rises. d) Kp = 1.2 x 103 and Kp should decrease as the temperature rises. e) Kp = 6.4 x 103 and KD will not change at the temperature rises. 25. The electrons ejected from a metal surface illuminated with light with a frequency of 7.55x1014 Hz have a kinetic energy of81.27 kI/mol. Photons in what wavelength range can induce the photoelectric effect in this metal? a) 7» > 544 nm b) A < 544 nm c) K > 313 nm (1) A < 313 nm e) Depends on the intensity of light 26. In figure (1) below argon atoms, represented by unshaded spheres, and neon atoms, represented by shaded spheres, are in separate compartments. Figure (2) shows the equilibrium state of the system after the stopcock separating the two compartments is opened. Assuming that argon and neon behave as ideal gases, what are the signs (+, -, or 0) of AH, AS, and AG for this process? a)AH=+,AS=-,AG=+ b)AH=0,AS=+,AG=- c)AH=0,AS=-,AG=+ d)AH=-,AS=+,AG=- e)AH=-,AS=-,AG=— Page 6 of 11 27. The plots below represent vapor pressure vs. temperature curves for diethyl ether, ethanol, mercury, and water, not necessarily in that order. T (a) (b) (C) (0') Pressure (mm Hg) Temperature ( 0C) —> Based on the strength of the intermolecular forces of attraction of each substance, which is the most likely vapour pressure vs. temperature curve for ethanol? a) Curve (3) b) Curve (b) c) Curve (c) d) Curve ((1) e) Cannot determine 28. For the reaction: k ‘ (CH3)3CBr + OH- —> (CH3)3COH + Br- the rate law is rate = k[[CH3)3CBr] Here are four mechanisms: 1 (caggcer —> (CH3)3C+ + Br- slow [CH3)3C+ + OH‘ ’5 (CH3)3COH fast 11 (CH3)3CBr —> (CH3)3C+ + Br- fast (CH3)3C+ + OH' -'> (CH3)3COH SlOW Ill (CH3)3CBI‘ + OH‘ —> (CH3)3COH + BI" lV (CH3)3CBr —> (CH3)3C+ + Br- slow (CH3)3C+ + H20 '—> [Cl‘la]3C(l‘l20)+ fast Which of the above are possible mechanisms for the reaction? (a) I only (b) l and IV only (C) III only ((1) land 11 only (e) none ofthese END OF MULTIPLE CHOICE Page 7 of 11 Part B: Short Answers (60 marks total) Show work and units where applicable for full marks! Write answers in the spaces provided. 1. (21 marks) a) Complete the phase diagram for water below, given the triple point is at 0.0098 °C and 4.58 mmHg. Label the solid, liquid and gas phases (you do not have to label the critical point). _ One method of restoring water-damaged books is by "freeze-drying" them in evacuated chambers. - i. On'your diagram, place an A for the Water in a wet book on your desk after your lecturer spills a glass of water on it accidently. ii. In freeze-drying, the water is first frozen at constant pressure. Label the frozen water B on your diagram and draw a line connecting A and B to show the phase transition. What is the phase change from A to B? iii. In the last step, the water is converted to a gas in the freezer and removed from the books. Label the gas C on your diagram and draw a line connecting B and C to show the phase transition. What is the phase change from B to C? a E Phase changes: 3 A to B B to C 0.0098 Temperature (“Ci b) Which of the following electronic transitions in a hydrogen atom will lead to emission of a photon with the shortest wavelength, n = 1 to n = 4, n = 4 to n = 2 or n = 3 to n = 2? Ex lain briefl . Calculations are not necessary. c) Complete the heating curve for water below. The melting point of ice is 0 °C and the boiling point of water is 100 °C. A double boiler is used when careful control of temperature is needed in cooking. Water is boiled in a lower container and the steam condenses on the outside of a second container in which the cooking occurs. Draw an arrow on the heating curve to show the temperature where the cooking is taking place. What is the advantage of using a double boiler? A U G V H h :I «a as , I- 9 n. E U [— Brief explanation: Page 8 ofll Heat added (kJ/mol) 2. (9 marks) A large excess of MgF2(s) is maintained in contact with 1.00 L of pure water to produce a saturated solution of Mng. a) An additional 1.0 L is added to the solution. What is the effect on [Mg2+] once equilibrium is re-established? r b) What is the effect on [Mg2+] if 1.0 M NaF is added to the solution? c) What is the effect on [Mg2+] if 1.0 M HCl is added to the solution? Explain the effect in each part briefly, using chemical equations in your explanation. No calculations are necessar . 3. (6 marks) Use molecular arguments to briefly explain why each of the following speeds u chemical reaction: a) catalyst b) increase in temperature c) increase in concentration Page 9 of 11 4. (11 marks) One of the key reactions in the gasification of coal is the methanation reaction shown below: C0(g) + 3H2(g) S CH4(g) + H2005) AH° = -230 k]; Kc = 190 at 1000K 3) Estimate the AS" at 1000 K (assume AH" and AS° are independent of temperature.) c) The four gases are mixed together, at 1000 K, to give concentrations of each gas of 1.50 M. Calculate AG. Will the reaction proceed towards reactants or products to get to e uilibrium? d) An industrial chemist would like to maximize production of CH4. Name three changes the chemist could carry out to maximize the amount of CH4 obtained. 11) iii) Page 10 of 11 Name Student Number 5. (13 marks) The following questions pertain to the following galvanic cell: Sn(s)|Sn2+(0.O75 M) ||Pb2+(0.600M) |Pb(s]. a) For the diagram of the galvanic cell below, complete the following: i) in each box, indicate whether the electrode is the anode or cathode and which metal forms each electrode (note the electron flow is labeled on the diagram.) ii) label‘each beaker with the solution present. electron flow—————-—> b Determine Ecell- I c) If the cell operates spontaneously, will Ecell increase, decrease or stay the same as euilibrium is a a roached? Exlain briefl . d What are the concentrations of the ions when Ecen = 0? Page 11 ofll Periodic Table of the Elements 5.8 53 6mm 38 $3 53 SE NE :8 Say 38 V 68V :53 A V 33 A 5 oz as. E". mm .o .5 Eu E< an a2 3 an. 5 we «9 2: OS 8 8 3 8 8 g 8 S a 8 3: ca: 38 2.8 $8 38 32 32 32 v.02 S: «.3: mo: 3: 3 a> E .m o: E a: co 3m Em En. uz a 8 rfi on mm mm No oo no we no No Po om mm wm 8me 38 88V 8va 88v :3 £va 6% 8%; ac: on: we: 5:: an: ac: o< mm E 2: m2 Sr 9: m2 2: 8 8 .5 3% SE SE 38 38 3.8 0.08 as? $2 38 32 3m: 38 we? 3: $2 32 32 cm 2 on _m an. F m: .2 E L. mo 5. 3 «F E 3 am 8 ma mm vm mm mm Pm om an an up mu m“ VB an «n km on mm 9—,? m. Qua? mém.‘ 5w: w v: YN: m..qu v.69. QNS fro? 88 v me No hvhm «X o... am cw vm mm mm rm cm 0 mm? m 3 5.3 «New _ c. to ad. tn. :m 3m o... 05— n2 ._N > .5 am NV rv ow L! Lm mm m< o0 mm mm «m mm mm y; mv mv nv mv mv 3» av mm mm mm Nu. we made mm.mm modm mmdm mmdm vmém oodm vmdm mm. omév modv 02mm «0 :N :0 _z 00 on. :5. .5 > E. um «0 x em on mm mm mm . mm mm vm mm Nu vN om mr mmdm Emma node 3.8 modm mmém mm 9 mm ‘ mm mm mn mo mm 9. mm rmém mmdm .< _o m m .m _< N? i S m m N o. m V m as. m2 2‘ t or 9 3 9 NF :, 3.0a 8.9 00.9. 5.3 8.9 5.9 Need Pvmd mz n. O z o m mm 3 ov m m n m m v m 83 E. g E E <0 <m 83 m: t or m; 3 3 N I N (m , «J w? v STANDARD ELECTRODE (HALF-CELL) POTENTIALS* Half-Reaction 5° (V) Fjg) + 2c" :— 2F_(aq) +2.87 03(g) + 2H*(aq) + 2e‘ 2 02(g) + 1120(1) +2.07 C03+(aq) + e‘ :— C02+(uq) +1.82 H202(aq) + 2H+(aq) + 2e" 2 211200) +1.77 Pb02(s) + 3H+(aq) + HSOfluq) + 2e‘ : P115040) + 3130(1) +1.70 Ce“(aq) + 12‘ ‘——‘ Ce“(aq) +1.61 Mn04‘(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e‘ :2 Mn2+(aq) + 4HZO(I) +1.51 Au3+(aq) + 3e‘ :: Au(s) +1.50 Clz(g) + 212‘ :: 2C1‘(aq) +1.36 020727024) + 1411+(aq) + 6e‘ :— 2Cr-‘*(aq) + 711100) +1.33 ‘ Mn02(s) + 4H+(aq) + 2e‘ :2 Mn3+(aq) + 2100(1) +1.23 03(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e‘ :2 2H20(1) +1.23 Br2(l) + 2e- :2 ZBr'(aq) +1.07 NO3—(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 3e“ :2 NO(g) + 2112017) +0.96 2Hg2*(aq) + 2e‘ :2 Hg22+(uq) +0.92 Hg22+(aq) + 2e‘ 2 2ng) +0.85 Ag3+(aq) + e“ 2 Ag(s) +0.80 Fe +(aq) + e‘ 17—: Fez+(aq) +0.77 0261;) + 211+(aq) + 2e‘ 2—: H202(aq) +0.68 MnO4—(aq) + 2H20(l) + 3e_ 2‘:— Mn02(s) + 40H"(aq) +0.59 12(5) + 2e" :2 21‘(aq) +0.53 02( g) + 3120(1) + 4e‘ :2 40H“(aq) +0.40 Cu2+(aq) + 2e‘ 2 Cu(s) +0.34 AgCl(s) + e' :: Ag(s) + c1'(aq) +0.22 3042-0121) + 4H+(aq) + 2e” :: soz( g) + 21-1200) +0.20 Cu2+(aq) + e‘ 2 Cu+(aq) +0.15 Sn‘+(aq) + 2e‘ :: Sn2*(aq) +0.13 3H “(114) + 36‘ ':2 H3110 0,00 Pb“(aq) + 2e‘ :2 Pb(s) —0.13 Sn2+(aq) + 26' r: Sn(s) —o.14 N2(§) + 511+(aq) + 4e“ :2 N2H5+(aq) —0.23 N12 ((14) + 2e' :2 N10) —0.25 Coz+(aq) + 2e‘ :- C0(s) ~0.28 f P133040) + H*(aq) + 2c“ :: Pb(s) + HSO4'(aq) —0.31 Cd2+(aq) + 2e‘ :2 Cd(s) —0.40 % Fe2+(aq) + 2e' :: Fe(s) —0.44 Cr~‘*(aq) + 3e‘ : cm) —0.74 Zn2*(aq) + 2e‘ :2 Zn(s) —0.76 317200) + 2e‘ 2 H2(g) + ZOH—(aq) —O.83 Mn +(aq) + Ze— :2 Mn(s) — 1.18 ' A13*(aq) + 3e“ 2 A10) — 1.66 Mg“(aq) + ze‘ :2 Mg(s) ~2.37 Na‘(uq) + e‘ 2 Na(s) —2.7l Ca2+(uq) + 2e‘ 2 C210) —2.87 Sr“1aq) + 2e“ :2 S115) ~2.89 Bal+(uq) + 2e" 7: 83(5) —2.90 KWaq) + e' :2 1(0) —2.93 ,Li‘luq) + e‘ 7—: Lils) —3.05 M "All values at 298 K. Written as reductions; 5’ value refers to all components in their standard states: 1 M for dissolved species; 1 atm pressure for the gas behaving ideally: the pure substance for solids and liquids. Atomic mass unit Avogadro’s number Boltzmann’s constant Faraday’s constant Fundamental unit charge Gas constant Heat capacity of water Planck’s constant Rydberg’s constant Speed of light Zero point Kw of H20 at 25°C Units of pressure Units of length Units of energy Physical and Chemical Constants 1 a.m.u. = 1.6605402 x 10'27 kg NA = 6.0221367 x 1023 111616"1 kb = 1.380658 x1023 J K" F = 9.6485309 x 104 C mole‘l e =1.60217733 x1019 C R = 8.314510 J mole" K" = 0.082058 L atm mole" K" s = 4.184 J g'1K" = 75.4 J mol“ K" h = 6.6260755 x 10'34 J 5 RH = 2.1798 x10"8J = 1.097 x10'2 nm" c = 2.99792458 x 108 m s'1 0°C = 273.15 K KW ———- 1.00 x 10'14 1 atm = 101.325 kPa= 760 mmHg 1m =1010A=1012 pm lnm=10'9m 1 J = 1 kg-mzs'z lL-atm= 101 J -bi~\/b2 —4ac ax2+bx+c:0 x=———2——— KE=1/2mu2=3RT/(2NA) E=hu 9»: c a 13:ch X=—h— E=—2.178x10"18J[—1—2—j l=1.097x10‘2nm*‘( mv n 9» h nza AxA(mV) Z 21— PV = nRT P+ V2 (V“ "W = “RT 7: ATf = -Kfn'l ATb : Kbm H Psomfion : XAPA + XBPB M1V1 = Msz log(ab)=log(a) +log(b) ; log(a/b)=-log(b/a) Percent HA dissociated = LI:I—‘A‘i’iS—‘l‘lxl00% initial . [A”] Handerson- Hasselbach relatlon: pH = pKa + log ——— [HA] Kp = KC(RT)A“ pH = - 10g[H30+] pOH = - 10g[OH'] pH + pOH = 14 Ka x Kb = KW pKa = - log Ka First order reaction: In {[A]0/[A]} = kt t1 /2 = ln2/k Second order reaction: 1/[A] - 1/[A]0 = kt Zero order reaction: [A] = -kt + [A]0 Arhenius Equation: 1n k = In A — (Ea/RT) k = Ae'E“/RT AE : q + W W : "P AH = Dbonds brkn" Dbonds formed AY= Z n x Y(prdcts) — Z n x Y(rctnts) 0mm = Aqu m Cmoles = Aqu n (where Y = AHf’, S °, or AGf") S=kban AG 2 AH—TAS AG=AG°+RT1nQ AG° = -RT1nK Ecell = on + Ered AG = ~nFEcen AG° = —nFE°ceu 0 RT 0 0.0592 E = E "‘ #111 Q E = E '— 10g Q pH: (Ecell- nF 11 Egg” = (0.0257/n) In K E°cen = (0.0592/n) log K moles e" =lxt/F ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 12/15/2011 for the course CHM 139 taught by Professor Browning during the Spring '08 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

Page1 / 15

2010 Aug - Name: Student Number: Demo Group: UNIVERSITY OF...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 15. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online